Gymnosperms Spruces, Pines, etc.
Review From Friday • What are the characteristics of Kingdom Plantae? • What is true only of Bryophytes? • What is true of Bryophytes and Ferns? • What is the specialized tissue present in most plants(not mosses)?
Looking Forward • Today: Talk about gymnosperms and angiosperms • Tomorrow: Activity on Mosses and Ferns and Monocots and Dicots • Wednesday: How to: Dichotomous Keys • Thursday and Friday: Keying trees around school.
Today’s Plan • Collect Formal Conclusions (with questions) from DNA lab • Pass back Yeast Lab • Go over answers • Review Gymnosperms • Discuss Angiosperms • Differences between Monocots and Dicots
Yeast Lab • Inhibit: • 1. To hold back; restrain. See Synonyms at restrain. • 2. To prohibit; forbid. • 3. Psychology To suppress or restrain (behavior, an impulse, or a desire) consciously or unconsciously. • 4. a. Chemistry To prevent or decrease the rate of (a reaction). • b. Biology To decrease, limit, or block the action or function of (an enzyme or organ, for example).
What are gymnosperms? • Greek for “naked seeds” • 700-900 species of gymnosperms • Sporophyte generation is dominant • Has a short lived gametophyte phase, which is similar to Angiosperms
Types of Gymnosperms • Pine, Spruce, fir, cedar, ginko • Gymnosperms are used for manufacturing soaps, varnish, paints, perfumes
Ohio Gymnosperms • Pinusstrobus L. White Pine. • Pinus virginiana Mill. Scrub Pine. • Thujaoccidentalis L. Arborvitae. • Other Common Gymnosperms: • Colorado Spruce, Norway Spruce, Scotch Pine, Hemlock, Juniper
Characteristics of Gymnosperms • Pine-like Needles • Adapted for colder, dryer climates-thick cuticle, small surface area • Sporophyte begins to grow in the cone-not as vulnerable • Male and Female pinecones are present on 1 trees • Male cones are more commonly seen on top of the tree, female cones are farther down
How does Reproduction Happen • Pollen lands on the female cone, gets drawn inside and germinates. • Sperm nuclei pass down tube and one fertilizes egg • The zygote grows into a sporophyte still inside the female gametophyte which is inside the seed coat
Ginkos and Cycads • These look much different than the rest of the Gymnosperms • Ginkos used to be much more prevalent than they are today. • GinkoBiloba is the only Ginko species still alive • used for memory enhancement, altitude sickness, symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and reduction of chemotherapy-induced end-organ vascular damage. (still being tested) • One of the most widely sold herbal supplements in the US
What’s an Angiosperm • Most common land plants • Covered seed-seed is encompassed inside fruit • These plants have true roots, stems (shoots), flowers, and leaves • Separated into 2 groups: Monocots and Dicots
Angiosperms of Ohio • Monocots: • Corn • False Garlic • White Trillium • Official state flower of Ohio
Angiosperms of Ohio • Dicots • Maple • Elm • Oak • Beech Tree • Buckeye Tree • State tree