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Hydronium Ions and Hydroxide Ions Self-Ionization of Water PowerPoint Presentation
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Hydronium Ions and Hydroxide Ions Self-Ionization of Water

Hydronium Ions and Hydroxide Ions Self-Ionization of Water

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Hydronium Ions and Hydroxide Ions Self-Ionization of Water

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  1. Section 1 Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pH Chapter 15 Hydronium Ions and Hydroxide Ions Self-Ionization of Water • In the self-ionization of water,two water molecules produce a hydronium ion and a hydroxide ion by transfer of a proton. • In water at 25°C, [H3O+] = 1.0 ×10−7 M and [OH−] = 1.0 × 10−7 M. • The ionization constant of water,Kw, is expressed by the following equation. • Kw = [H3O+][OH−]

  2. Section 1 Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pH Chapter 15 Hydronium Ions and Hydroxide Ions, continued Neutral, Acidic, and Basic Solutions • Solutions in which [H3O+] = [OH−] is neutral. • Solutions in which the [H3O+] > [OH−] are acidic. • [H3O+] > 1.0 × 10−7 M • Solutions in which the [OH−] > [H3O+] are basic. • [OH−] > 1.0 × 10−7 M

  3. Section 1 Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pH Chapter 15 Some Strong Acids and Some Weak Acids

  4. Section 1 Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pH Chapter 15 Concentrations and Kw

  5. Section 1 Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pH Chapter 15 The pH Scale • The pH of a solution is defined as the negative of the common logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration, [H3O+]. • pH = −log [H3O+] • example: a neutral solution has a [H3O+] = 1×10−7 • The logarithm of 1×10−7 is −7.0. • pH = −log [H3O+] = −log(1 × 10−7) = −(−7.0) = 7.0

  6. Section 1 Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pH Chapter 15 pH Values as Specified [H3O+]

  7. Section 1 Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pH Chapter 15 The pH Scale • The pOH of a solution is defined as the negative of the common logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration, [OH−]. • pOH = −log [OH–] • example: a neutral solution has a [OH–] = 1×10−7 • The pH = 7.0. • The negative logarithm of Kw at 25°C is 14.0. • pH + pOH = 14.0

  8. Section 1 Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pH Chapter 15 The pH Scale

  9. Section 1 Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pH Chapter 15 Approximate pH Range of Common Materials

  10. Section 1 Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pH Chapter 15 pH of Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

  11. Section 1 Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pH Chapter 15 pH Values of Some Common Materials

  12. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Indicators and pH Meters • Acid-base indicatorsare compounds whose colors are sensitive to pH. • Indicators change colors because they are either weak acids or weak bases.

  13. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Indicators and pH Meters • The pH range over which an indicator changes color is called its transition interval. • Indicators that change color at pH lower than 7 are stronger acids than the other types of indicators. • They tend to ionize more than the others. • Indicators that undergo transition in the higher pH range are weaker acids.

  14. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Indicators and pH Meters • A pH meterdetermines the pH of a solution by measuring the voltage between the two electrodes that are placed in the solution. • The voltage changes as the hydronium ion concentration in the solution changes. • Measures pH more precisely than indicators

  15. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Color Ranges of Indicators

  16. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Color Ranges of Indicators

  17. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Color Ranges of Indicators

  18. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Titration • Neutralization occurs when hydronium ions and hydroxide ions are supplied in equal numbers by reactants. • H3O+(aq) + OH−(aq) 2H2O(l) • Titration is the controlled addition and measurement of the amount of a solution of known concentration required to react completely with a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration.

  19. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Titration, continued Equivalence Point • The point at which the two solutions used in a titration are present in chemically equivalent amounts is the equivalence point. • The point in a titration at which an indicator changes color is called the end point of the indicator.

  20. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Titration, continued Equivalence Point, continued • Indicators that undergo transition at about pH 7 are used to determine the equivalence point of strong-acid/strong base titrations. • The neutralization of strong acids with strong bases produces a salt solution with a pH of 7.

  21. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Titration, continued Equivalence Point, continued • Indicators that change color at pH lower than 7 are used to determine the equivalence point of strong-acid/weak-base titrations. • The equivalence point of a strong-acid/weak-base titration is acidic.

  22. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Titration, continued Equivalence Point, continued • Indicators that change color at pH higher than 7 are used to determine the equivalence point of weak-acid/strong-base titrations. • The equivalence point of a weak-acid/strong-base titration is basic.

  23. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Titration Curve for a Strong Acid and a Strong Base

  24. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Titration Curve for a Weak Acid and a Strong Base

  25. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Molarity and Titration • The solution that contains the precisely known concentration of a solute is known as a standard solution. • A primary standard is a highly purified solid compound used to check the concentration of the known solution in a titration • The standard solution can be used to determine the molarity of another solution by titration.

  26. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Performing a Titration, Part 1

  27. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Performing a Titration, Part 1

  28. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Performing a Titration, Part 1

  29. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Performing a Titration, Part 2

  30. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Performing a Titration, Part 2

  31. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Performing a Titration, Part 2

  32. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Molarity and Titration, continued • To determine the molarity of an acidic solution, 10 mL HCl, by titration • Titrate acid with a standard base solution 20.00 mL of 5.0 × 10−3 M NaOH was titrated • Write the balanced neutralization reaction equation. • HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) 1 mol 1 mol 1 mol 1 mol • Determine the chemically equivalent amounts of HCl and NaOH.

  33. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Molarity and Titration, continued • Calculate the number of moles of NaOH used in the titration. • 20.0 mL of 5.0 × 10−3 M NaOH is needed to reach the end point • amount of HCl = mol NaOH = 1.0 × 10−4 mol • Calculate the molarity of the HCl solution

  34. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Molarity and Titration, continued • Start with the balanced equation for the neutralization reaction, and determine the chemically equivalent amounts of the acid and base. • 2. Determine the moles of acid (or base) from the known solution used during the titration. • 3. Determine the moles of solute of the unknown solution used during the titration. • 4. Determine the molarity of the unknown solution.

  35. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Molarity and Titration, continued Sample Problem F In a titration, 27.4 mL of 0.0154 M Ba(OH)2 is added to a 20.0 mL sample of HCl solution of unknown concentration until the equivalence point is reached. What is the molarity of the acid solution?

  36. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Molarity and Titration, continued • Sample Problem F Solution • Given:volume and concentration of known solution • = 27.4 mL of 0.0154 M Ba(OH)2 • Unknown:molarity of acid solution • Solution: • balanced neutralization equation • chemically equivalent amounts Ba(OH)2 + 2HCl BaCl2 + 2H2O 1 mol 2 mol 1 mol 2 mol

  37. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Molarity and Titration, continued Sample Problem F Solution, continued 2. volume of known basic solution used (mL) amount of base used (mol) 3. mole ratio, moles of base used moles of acid used from unknown solution

  38. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Molarity and Titration, continued Sample Problem F Solution, continued 4. volume of unknown, moles of solute in unknown molarity of unknown

  39. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Molarity and Titration, continued • Sample Problem F Solution, continued • 1 mol Ba(OH)2 for every 2 mol HCl. 2. 3.

  40. Section 2 Determining pH and Titrations Chapter 15 Molarity and Titration, continued Sample Problem F Solution, continued 4.

  41. Ch. 15: Solutions / Acids and Bases Dilutions

  42. Ch. 15: Solutions / Acids and Bases Concentration How to Make a Solution

  43. Ch. 15: Solutions / Acids and Bases Concentration How to Make a Solution

  44. Concentration • Dilute • small amount of solute in the solution • Concentrated • large amount of solute • in the solution • These are vague terms • without definite • boundaries • They can be used to • compare solutions

  45. Molarity • is most often used to specify the concentration of a solution • number of moles of solute in one liter of solution • that does not mean solute added to one liter of solvent- WHY? • units: moles/liter = M

  46. Example 1 • 3.7 moles of HCl is added to water to make 500. mL of solution. What is the molarity? • moles are given • total volume of soln is given

  47. Example 2 • How many liters of 0.20 M solution can be from 3.00 mol of NaCl?

  48. Example 3 • How many moles of NaCl are needed to make 11.0 L of 0.15 M solution? • How many grams of NaCl would that be?

  49. Example 4 • 21.0 g of NaOH is dissolved in enough water to make 500. mL of solution. What is the molarity? • find moles from grams • total volume of solution is given

  50. How to make a solution • Calculate the number of grams of solute that you need to make a certain concentration of solution • Measure that amount out in a beaker • Dissolve that solute with distilled water • Use glass stirring rod to quicken process • Pour that solution in the correct volumetric flask