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The Quest for Empire, 1865–1914

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The Quest for Empire, 1865–1914

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  1. The Quest for Empire, 1865–1914 • What was the relationship between America’s economic interests abroad and the expansionist impulse of the late nineteenth century? • What were the intellectual currents that encouraged Americans to believe that their country should be an Imperial Power?

  2. Intellectual Currents 18th & 19th C • Technological progress • Nationalism • Imperialism • Racism • Anglo Superiority • Social Darwinism • Manifest Destiny & Frontier mentality • Nativism • Capitalism • Rudyard Kipling’s White Man’s Burden

  3. Identification’s • What are some examples of American foreign policy being employed in the late 1800s and early 1900s? • Bayonet Congress • Hawaiian and Queen Liliokalani Revolt • United States 1893 coup • Clayton-Bulwer Treaty • Foraker Act • Butcher Valeriano Weyler • Treaty of Paris • The Maine • Aguinaldo and the Filipino Anti-colonial Movement • Platt Amendment • John Hay’s Open Door Notes • Boxer Rebellion

  4. Technology • As an ideology in addition to economic development • Cultural changes observed by thinkers • Self-renunciation in the pursuit of the accumulation of wealth • Lack of enjoyment, theater and learning for capital • Profound impact on culture and race in America • Served as a metaphor and materialist basis for the domination of • Mind over body • Capital over labor • Whites over Indians, Blacks, Mexicans, Asians

  5. 1830 technological Celebration • America entered into a celebration of technology as an expression of its nationalism and progress • President Jackson, 3 annual address • Praised science for expanding man’s power over nature • Improving the mail system • Moving cities closer to each other in travel time • Opening lines of communication and trade to settlers isolated by obstacles of nature

  6. Celebration of Technology • Technology would serve to destroy “The traces of savage life” • Like the Indians, the horse would disappear, they would become traditional • It would transform production and labor in America • Promise to free laborers from work… • Instead it deprived work of interest & creativity • Maximized the amount of time worked • Degraded labor • Did not eliminate the body from laboring • It separated the intellectual power of production from manual labor

  7. Westward Expansion • Manifest Destiny viewed in terms of technological progress • Southern Quarterly Review, 1828 • They could “perceive neither justice, nor wisdom, nor humanity in arresting the progress of order and science, that unproductive and barren wastes may be reserved for the roaming barbarian”

  8. New Imperial Vision • Integrated science with expansion • “Science is steadily penetrating the recesses of nature and disclosing her secrets while the ingenuity of free minds is subjecting the elements to the power of man and making each new conquest auxiliary to his comfort” • American identity developed with the movement westward, toward Asia • Desire to open doors to Asia

  9. Senator Thomas Hart Benton • Personified West & its expansionist spirit • While the “yellow” race was far above the “Black” and the “red” races, it was still far below the “White” and like all the rest “must receive an impression from the superior race whenever they come into contact” • Adams sons, the White race alone received the “divine command, to subdue and replenish the earth” • White developed religion, art, and science, destroying “savagery” and “savages” in America as they advanced civilization. • Capital replaced the wigwam • White matrons replaced red squaws • Christian people replaced savages

  10. Nationalism • Political force at the turn of the century 19th C • A learned emotional loyalty that individuals direct toward a group with which they perceive common bonds • Provides members a sense of membership & belonging • Nurtured by common bonds: language, religion, social & institutional traditions, territory, history • History might be glorified or even a new one constructed and imagined to perpetuate nationalism and unity

  11. United States • Heterogeneous population of the United States • Nationalism complex & contradictory • Traditional doctrine of an ethnic and religious “melting pot” whose citizens gave primary allegiance to the concepts of economic opportunity and political democracy • Cultural tradition reflected values and prejudices of the politically & economically powerful persons descended from ethnic groups in Northern Europe • Predominately Anglo (Germanic tribes) Saxon Protestants

  12. Imperialism • The process by which a small number of industrial nations extended their economic and political control over much of the rest of the world • The main driving force in international relations at the turn of the century • Fueled by Nationalism • Engendered in many countries a relentless urge to compete with other nations to become the most powerful in the world • Special interest groups often encouraged national governments to extend their influence abroad

  13. Strategic Imperialism • Concern for control of key Waterways, ports, military outposts • U.S. control of Hawaii for example • U.S. creation of Panama to maintain control of the Panama Canal

  14. Cultural Imperialism • Motive, rationalization, result • Basis of alleged natural superiority of the white race, westerners argued that it was the “White Man’s Burden” to bring the benefits of “Superior” western civilization • technology, • Religion • Institutions • To “inferior” non-whites of the world living in “darkness and ignorance”

  15. Christian Missionary zeal • Another manifestation of cultural imperialism • The flag follows the cross • Missionaries from America sought to impose Christianity on non-Christian peoples around the world • Missionaries would come into conflict with local peoples • Imperial powers would send in military forces to protect the missionaries

  16. Herbert Spencer & Social Darwinism • Argued biological evolution, involving competition, elimination of the weak, and “survival of the fittest” should be applied to competition among cultures, nations and peoples • It was right or “natural” for “strong, superior cultures” to control or even to eliminate “weaker, inferior cultures.”

  17. United States Imperialism • Not a significant military or diplomatic force in the 1889 • Army: 25,000 men • Navy: sails and wooden vessels • Census Bureau announced the official closing of the “frontier” in 1890 • Business people & farmers were concerned with ability of domestic markets to absorb output and increase revenues

  18. Foreign Policy Elite • Argued • US prosperity & security required expansion overseas & global activity • Asserted foreign trade & investments = profit • Relieved farm/factory overproduction (1890s depression)

  19. Interventionists • The most important groups who became interested in extending America’s influence abroad • Protestant missionaries • Businessmen/Capitalists • Imperialists

  20. Imperialistic Designs • Imperialists desire to control ports, and territories beyond their own borders. • -         to catch up with other nations • Europe’s division of Africa complete by 1912 • -         build a strong navy • -         Solidify a sphere of influence • -         External markets into Asia

  21. Foreign Trade Expansion • Economic Growth: • Exports & investments abroad surged • USA achieved favorable balance of trade (1874) • Most US exports to England, Europe, Canada • Trade w/ Latin America & Asia also increased • Farmers & some manufacturers (Singer) depended on exports • 1913: factory exports surpassed farm exports for first time

  22. Race Thinking & Male Ethos • Many intertwined ideas encouraged empire • Nationalism, Capitalism, Social Darwinism, & prejudice • Imperialists asserted racial hierarchy w/ Anglo-Saxons on top • “Might Makes it Right”

  23. New Frontiers • Protestant clergyman, Josiah Strong’s Our Country: It’s Possible Future and its present Crisis (1885) • celebrated divine Anglo-Saxon mission to lead world • “God, with infinite wisdom and skill, is training the Anglo-Saxon race for an hour sure to come in the world’s future” • Author, John Fiske – lecture circuit on Manifest Destiny • Predicted “every land on the earth’s surface” that was not already civilized would become “English in its language, in its religion, in political habits and traditions, and to a predominant extent in the blood of its people”

  24. Race Thinking & Male Ethos • National Geographic (1888) stereotyped foreign peoples as uncivilized; same w/ fairs • Ethnocentrism/ paternalism shaped imperialism • US culture superior; dark skinned foreigners = “children” • Such ideas rationalized domination of others

  25. Mahan and Navalism • Major factor of Imperialism • “blue water” navy to protect foreign trade • foreign bases to protect trade • Power derived from control of the seas • Mahan’s Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1890, influences other countries • 1880s: USA build new steel & steam navy • 4 steel ships • 1890 congress appropriated funds for 3 battleships

  26. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850) • Secretary of State James G. Blaine, under the Garfield Administration • Promoted American expansion throughout the western hemisphere • Wanted to renegotiate the treaty to give the U.S. control over any canal across Central America • Originally with Britain, prohibited both nations from exercising exclusive control over any future waterway • 1552, King Charles of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire First suggested it be built • exploring expedition of 1788-1793 Alessandro Malaspina outlined plans for its construction • Construction begun by France in 1880 • Completed and opened by the United States in 1912 • He wanted to create Pan-American system that would promote stability & security in Caribbean & South America

  27. Pan-Americanism • International Bureau of the American Republics became the Pan-American Union in 1910 • Laid the foundation for sharing of ideas and information throughout the western hemisphere • it offered technical and informational services to all the American republics, served as the repository for international documents, and was responsible through subsidiary councils for the furtherance of economic, social, juridical, and cultural relations.

  28. Annexation of Hawai‘i • US missionaries, businessmen, & navy see Hawai‘i as base for profit & expansion • 1820’s Boston Missionaries – sugar planters • 1875 (Sugar) duty free entry into American Market • 1887 U.S. Naval rights in Pearl Harbor • 1887 “Bayonet Congress” and “Bayonet Constitution” of King Kalakaua • While attempting to create a Polynesian confederation • Business men or the “missionary party” forced Kalakaua into signing a provisional government that allowed for foreign control of the government and economy

  29. Queen Liliokalani Revolt • 1892, the Hawaiian Legislature and Queen argued over the presence and role of foreigners in the country • She dismissed the legislature • Established a constitution that stripped white settlers of the powers enjoyed under the previous institutions

  30. United States Coup, 1893 • White planters & businessmen favored annexation of Hawaii • Stage coup of Queen (’93) w/ help of US diplomats/navy • McKinley Tariff 1890 canceled Hawaii’s favored access to American Markets

  31. Queen Liliokalani took over and strove to establish independence. • 5-6 princes of various royal families mysteriously died • Princess Kaiulani died at age 24  • Kauananakoa - Today

  32. LilioKalani • "I yield to the superior force of the United States of America, whose minister, his Excellency John L. Stevens, has caused United States troops to be landed at Honolulu. ... Now, to avoid any collision of armed forces and perhaps the loss of life, I do, under this protest, and impelled by said force, yield my authority until such time as the government of the United States shall undo the action of its representative and reinstate me."

  33. President Grover Cleveland • Dec. 18, 1893, he briefed Congress on his findings: • "By an act of war, committed with the participation of a diplomatic representative of the United States and without authority of Congress, the government of a feeble but friendly and confiding people has been overthrown," Cleveland said. "A substantial wrong has thus been done, which a due regard for our national character, as well as the rights of the injured people, requires we should endeavor to repair."

  34. A woman (Hawai'i) and Uncle Sam are getting married, kneeling before the minister (McKinley) who is reading from a book entitled "Annexation Policy". The bride seems ready to bolt. Behind the couple stands Morgan (jingo) with a shotgun. Annexed in 1898 – President McKinley Puck & Judge, 1897“Another Shotgun Wedding”

  35. Jingoism • Describes chauvinistic patriotism, usually with a hawkish political stance. In plain language it means bullying other countries, or, using whatever means necessary to safeguard a country's national interests. • Xenophobia “10,000 miles from tip to tip” political Cartoon from 1898

  36. Revolution in Cuba (1895) • 1868 Cubans launch guerrilla war; many die & much destruction of US property, but weaken Spain • “Butcher” Valeriano Weyler • 200,000 - concentration camps • 1/8 of population died of starvation and disease • Americans sympathize w/ rebels

  37. Resistance Movement 29 years • Liberation Movement continued through 1897 • Cuba demanded full independence • Riots broke out in Havana • McKinley ordered the Battleship Maine into Havana Harbor to protect US citizens and their property.

  38. United States Intervention • Excuse • Explosion of Maine • (Feb., 1898) • Motives • “humanitarian” • secure US property /trade • opportunity for US expansion/ empire

  39. Conditions to Avoid War • United States conditions to Spain to avoid war • Abandoning the concentration camps • End fighting of resistance • Commit Cuba to independence. • American superior navy • Took Cuba, Philippines, Puerto Rico

  40. Changing American Opinion • Cuban revolutionaries • initially intelligent, civilized, and democratic while possessing an Anglo-Saxon tenacity of purpose.   • Opinion changed • Primitive, Savage and incapable of self control or self government. • White Man’s Burden

  41. Treaty of Paris (1898) • Cede Puerto Rico and Guam to the US • & Philippines in exchange for 20 million  

  42. Anti-Imperialist Arguments • Imperialism and empire building, whether through formal or informal methods violates principles of the United States • formal (annexation) • informal (economic control) • racist arguments (fear nonwhite immigration); labor unions fear competition

  43. Imperialist Arguments • Taking Philippines • boost US trade w/ China • Competition w /other Empires • “white man’s burden”

  44. Intellectual Currents • Social Darwinism • Herbert Spencer • Darwin’s theory of biological evolution applied to competition among cultures, nations, people • White Mans Burden • Rudyard Kipling • Anglo Saxon Movement • Woodrow Wilson • Kaiser Wilhelm II

  45. Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed--Go, bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need;To wait, in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your new-caught sullen peoples,Half devil and half child..." • Rudyard Kipling -  McClure's Magazine 12 (Feb. 1899).

  46. Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed--Go, bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need;To wait, in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your new-caught sullen peoples,Half devil and half child..." • Rudyard Kipling -  McClure's Magazine 12 (Feb. 1899).

  47. Intellectual Challenges • Edward Wilmot Blyden • Black Spokesman • His life’s work to dispel superiority and inferiority myths • To include Africa in Geopolitics • Black Nationalism & pan-Africanism • The African Personality • Place of Islam and Arabic in Africa • Pan-Africanism 1832 – 1912 West Indian Liberian Statesman & Ideologue

  48. Intellectual Challenges to Western Cultural Imperialism • Sociologist, Lester Frank Ward • Dynamic Sociology (1883) • Criticized social Darwinism • Argued the conservative social scientists responsible for Social Darwinism, Herbert Spencer & William Graham Sumner wrongly applied evolutionary theory to human affairs • Confused organic evolution with social evolution

  49. Philippine Insurrection and Pacification • Emilio Aguinaldo, Leader of the Filipino Anti-colonial Movement • The Filipino people rose in revolt against the US army of occupation February 6, 1899 • USA crushed most resistance by 1902 • war continued in south • 5,000 Americans die • 200,000 Filipinos die • Controlled Philippines via education (create pro-US elite), censorship, economic links

  50. America’s Philippines • concentration camps •   houses, farms and livestock destroyed • economy destroyed – starvation • 16,000 rebels • 200,000 civilians deals • New York infantry killed 1,000 men, women, and children in retaliation for the death of one soldier.