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  1. from “Chance and Circumstance” By David Leonhardt The New York Times, November 28, 2008

  2. Who Is Malcolm Gladwell? • In 1984, a young man named Malcolm graduated from the University of Toronto and moved to the United States to try his hand at journalism. • Thanks to his uncommonly clear writing style and keen eye for a story, he quickly landed a job at The Washington Post.

  3. After less than a decade at The Post, he moved up to the pinnacle of literary journalism, The New Yorker. • There, he wrote articles full of big ideas about the hidden patterns of ordinary life, which then became grist for two No. 1 best-selling books. • In the vast world of nonfiction writing, he is as close to a singular talent as exists today.

  4. Or at least that’s one version of the story of Malcolm Gladwell. Here is another: • In 1984, a young man named Malcolm graduated from the University of Toronto and moved to the United States to try his hand at journalism. • No one could know it then, but he arrived with nearly the perfect background for his time.

  5. His mother was a psychotherapist and his father a mathematician. • Their professions pointed young Malcolm toward the behavioral sciences, whose popularity would explode in the 1990s. • His mother also just happened to be a writer on the side.

  6. So unlike most children of mathematicians and therapists, he came to learn, as he would later recall, “that there is beauty in saying something clearly and simply.” • As a journalist, he plumbed the behavioral research for optimistic lessons about the human condition, and he found an eager audience during the heady, proudly geeky ’90s. • His first book, “The Tipping Point,” was published in March 2000, just days before the Nasdaq peaked.

  7. These two stories about Gladwell are both true, and yet they are also very different. • The first personalizes his success. • It is the classically American version of his career, in that it gives individual characteristics — talent, hard work, Horatio Alger-like pluck — the starring role. • The second version doesn’t necessarily deny these characteristics, but it does sublimate them. • The protagonist is not a singularly talented person who took advantage of opportunities. • He is instead a talented person who took advantage of singular opportunities.

  8. Gladwell’s latest book, “Outliers,” is a passionate argument for taking the second version of the story more seriously than we now do. • “It is not the brightest who succeed,” Gladwell writes. “Nor is success simply the sum of the decisions and efforts we make on our own behalf. It is, rather, a gift. Outliers are those who have been given opportunities — and who have had the strength and presence of mind to seize them.”

  9. He doesn’t actually tell his own life story in the book. (But he lurks offstage, since he does describe the arc of his mother’s Jamaican family.) • Instead, he tells other success stories, often using the device of back-to-back narratives. • He starts with a tale of individual greatness, about the Beatles or the titans of Silicon Valley or the enormously successful generation of New York Jews born in the early 20th century. • Then he adds details that undercut that tale.

  10. from“It’s True: Success Succeeds, and Advantages Can Help” By Michiko Kakutani The NY Times September 17, 2008

  11. Outliers: The Story of Success, which purports to explain the real reason some people — like Bill Gates and the Beatles — are successful, is peppy, brightly written and provocative in a buzzy sort of way. • It is also glib, poorly reasoned and thoroughly unconvincing.

  12. Much of what Mr. Gladwell has to say about superstars is little more than common sense: that talent alone is not enough to ensure success, that opportunity, hard work, timing and luck play important roles as well. • The problem is that he then tries to extrapolate these observations into broader hypotheses about success.

  13. These hypotheses not only rely heavily on suggestion and innuendo, but they also pivot deceptively around various anecdotes and studies that are selective in the extreme: the reader has no idea how representative such examples are, or how reliable — or dated — any particular study might be.

  14. Citing what Robert Merton called the “Matthew Effect”, Mr. Gladwell suggests that children from wealthy or middle-class backgrounds are much more likely to succeed than those from impoverished ones. • He describes a study, begun in the 1920s by a professor of psychology named Lewis Terman, that tracked a group of gifted children and found, in Mr. Gladwell’s words, that “almost none of the genius children from the lowest social and economic class ended up making a name for themselves.”

  15. To Mr. Gladwell the stories of the Beatles and Bill Gates are also distinguished not by “their extraordinary talent but their extraordinary opportunities.” • The Beatles became the Beatles, he suggests, because they happened to be invited, repeatedly, to Hamburg, Germany, where they had to perform many hours an evening for many nights — practice time that enabled them to hone their craft. • Mr. Gladwell does not explain why other groups, who practiced as much as the Beatles, never became one of the seminal rock groups of all time, or why groups like the Rolling Stones or the Beach Boys, who didn’t play as many Hamburg shows as the Beatles, also went on to shape music history.

  16. In much the same fashion, Mr. Gladwell suggests that Bill Gates became Bill Gates because he was lucky enough to attend a high school that “had access to a time-sharing terminal in 1968” and because he had another series of opportunities to spend hours working on computer programming before dropping out of Harvard to start his own software company.

  17. Both the Beatles and Mr. Gates, Mr. Gladwell argues, exceeded or came close to what he calls “the 10,000-Hour Rule” — the number of hours of practice that a neurologist named Daniel Levitin says are likely required “to achieve the level of mastery associated with being a world-class expert — in anything.” • Also, says Mr. Gladwell, Mr. Gates had the good fortune to be born in 1955 — one of the optimum years to be born to take advantage of the personal computer age.