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  1. CRM 1204CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Lecture 3: CRM Situational Awareness

  2. Learning Outcomes • At the end of this lecture, student should be able to: • Explain the cognitive skills and interpersonal skills • Explain Situational Awareness

  3. CRM • CRM is the effective use of all available resources to achieve safe and efficient flight operations.

  4. CRM skills • CRM is concerned not so much with the technical skills but rather with the cognitive and interpersonal skills needed to manage the flight. • Cognitiveskills are defined as the mental processes used for gaining and maintaining situational awareness, for problem solving and decision making. • Interpersonal skills are regarded as communicationsand a range of behavioral activities in the teamwork

  5. Cognitive Skills Situational Awareness Problem Solving Decision Making Interpersonal Skills Communications Teamwork Cognitive and Interpersonal Skills 5

  6. Outline for the Presentation • CRM skills (review) • Introduction • Situational Awareness • Establishing Situational Awareness • What to be Aware? • Preparation to be good in Situational Awareness • Maintaining Good Situational Awareness • Cause of Loss of Situational Awareness • Factor Reduce of Situational Awareness • Prevention of Loss Situational Awareness • Regaining Situational Awareness • Conclusion

  7. Major Causes of Human Error in Aircraft Accidents Lack of Situational Awareness Poor Decision Making Lack of Communication Lack of Teamwork Lack of Resources Lack of Knowledge Lack of Assertiveness Distraction Pressure & Stress Crew Fatigue

  8. Introduction What is the AWARENESS?? • State or ability to perceive, to feel, or to be conscious of events, or to sense everything.

  9. What is Situational Awareness ? • The accurate perceptionof all the factors including technical , environment & human that affects the aircraft and the crew, including knowing what has happened in the PAST, what’s going on NOW, and what might happen in the FUTURE.

  10. What is Situational Awareness ? • “Knowing what is going on around you” • It give the description of an individual’s or team’s understanding of the aircraft state of environment.

  11. Cont. • Have you always AWARE of what is happening around you?? • E.g People, Environment, Personal Condition • How to be AWARE? • Knowledge • Experience • Communication(information) • Sensation • Training

  12. Requirement for good SA • Requires • Good mental health • Good physical health • Attentiveness (Close Attention) • Inquisitiveness (Curious)

  13. Cont. • Involves conscious recognition of all factors and conditions: operational, technical and human affect the SAFE OPERATION of an aircraft. • Poor SA Poor Decision Making • SA need to be established and maintained!! HOW??

  14. Establishing Situational Awareness • In order to establish situational awareness, human beings take in information through the 5 senses • 1) Touch • 2) Hearing • 3) Smell • 4) Sight • 5) Taste • This information is then transformed by the brain into a mental model of the situation (PERCEPTION), • This process known as PERCEPTIVE PROCESS

  15. Perceptive Process

  16. The perceptive process depends on current information, past experience and sensations. Human interpret situation differently because of this different factors for each person shape of life.

  17. How to achieve High Degree of SA?? • Individual’s PERCEPTION of events approaches the reality of situation ACCURACY • In flight: • SA created by accuracy of mental model (accuracy of perception). • Most information comes from flight instruments and navigational equipment. We taking information through 5 senses.

  18. Process of construction an accurate mental model is based on:- • Position of the Flight • Condition of the aircraft • Condition of the crew • This can be degrading by the influences such as: • Inattention • Distraction • Under-arousal (under consciousness) • Stress • Fatigue

  19. The pilot or other crew need to confirm his/her accuracy of mental model with other crew members by sharing information and perceptions and stating intentions before making any decision. What to be aware in flight??

  20. What to be AWARE?? • Every crew members must : • Are aware of what the aircraft and its systems are doing. • Are aware of where the aircraft is and its environment. • Are aware of the condition of people involved in the operation including passengers. • Keep track of time and fuel. • Recognize what is likely to happen, plan and stay ahead of the game. • Develop what if scenarios and make pre-decisions • Identify threats to the safety of the aircraft and people.

  21. Examples of POOR SA practice: Examples of GOOD practice: Awareness of AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS • Does not ask for updates • Does not signal awareness of changing systems. The crew needs to be constantly aware of the state of different aircraft systems Monitors and reports changes in system states Acknowledges entries and changes to systems.

  22. Examples of POOR practice: Examples of GOOD practice: Awareness of ENVIRONMENTThe crew needs to be aware of their environment (position, weather, air traffic, terrain). • Does not ask for information about environmental changes; • Does not comment on relevant environmental factors. • Does not acknowledge ATC directions Collects information about the environment Contacts outside resources when necessary Shares information about the environment with others.

  23. Examples of POOR practice: Examples of GOOD practice: Awareness of TIMEThe crew must also be able to predict future states in order to expect future events • Does not set priorities with respect to time limits. • Does not discuss relationship between past events and present – future Discusses possibility strategies. Identifies possible future problems.

  24. How To Prepare Yourself to be Good For Situational Awareness?


  26. If you want to set yourself up for good situational awareness, then: Use I’M SAFE Checklist: • Illness • Do I have an illness or any symptoms of an illness • Medication • Have I been taking prescription or over-the-counter drugs? • Stress • Am I under psychological pressure from the job? Worried about financial matters, health or family problems? • Fatigue • Am I tired and not adequately rested? • Eating • Am I adequately nourished? • Alcohol • Have I been drinking within 8 hours? Within 24 hours?

  27. Cont. • I’M SAFE Description: ILLNESS. • Ask yourself how you are feeling today. • Many symptoms of colds may seem relatively not serious on the ground, but can be drastically amplified in the air. • Degrade pilot performance. MEDICATION: • Many types of over the counter or prescription medications can lead to errors in judgment, drowsiness and degraded reaction time STRESS: • It can occupy our minds and serve to be a great distraction and even diminish our levels of alertness and reaction.

  28. Cont. ALCOHOL: • As little as one ounce of liquor (a shot glass), one bottle of beer, or four ounces of wine (one glass) can impair flying skills. • alcohol consumed in these drinks being detectable in the breath and blood for at least 3 hours. FATIGUE: • Huge errors in judgment, decision making and piloting can be made when fatigued. EATING: • Proper diet. • Not eating can result in a lower blood sugar during a time when you as pilot are under a great deal of stress. • Too much eat can lead to tiredness (fatigue)

  29. Remember • Situational awareness is a critical factor in our ability to respond effectively to a situation • Maintaining a high level of situational awareness will better prepare crews to respond to unexpected situations • How SA could be maintained??

  30. Maintaining Good Situational Awareness Cont. • Way to maintain good Situational Awareness: • KNOWLEDGE of not just airplane, but the elements of CRM and their effects of performance. • ATTITUDE that is open to facing personal weaknesses. • PERSONAL HEALTH to sharpen the senses.

  31. Cont. • Way to maintain good Situational Awareness: • CREW COORDINATION- Allows crew to interact effectively while performing mission tasks • INQUIRY- Active questioning, investigation, and use of aggressive doubt (curious). • ASSERTIVENESS- Sense of obligation to speak up. • ANALYSIS -Continuous evaluation of everything to keep the “plan” up to date.

  32. But MANY people still experiences LOSS of SITUATIONAL AWARENESS…. • What are the CAUSES to loss SA?

  33. Causes of Loss of Situational Awareness • CONFUSION: uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied psychological discomfort). • TOO RELAXED: “I’ve done this a hundred times . . .” • IMPROPER PROCEDURES: Taking shortcuts from standard operating procedures • TOO CONFIDENT: “Everything is just fine!” • FIXATION: Focusing only on one thing and excluding all others • AMBIGUITY - information from two or more sources that doesn't agree (Unclear situations).

  34. Factors that Reduce Situational Awareness • Fatigue: extreme tiredness resulting from mental or physical exertion or illness. • Stress: Physical/ Psychological tension caused by dealing with difficult situations. • Task overload (Too busy to stay on top of everything) • Inadequate communication

  35. Thus, How to avoid from loss of Situational Awareness? -Prepare (I’M SAFE Checklist) - Maintain (knowledge, inquiry, etc…)

  36. How to Regain Situational Awareness Once Loss (Treatment) • Reduce workload: Delay the mission. • Communicate • Reduce threats: • Get away from the obstacles (e.g. climb to a safe altitude). • Establish a stable flight profile where you can safely analyze the situation.

  37. Conclusion • Situational Awareness is more than just perception. It is understanding the meaning of what you perceive, how it might change in the future, and the implications. • It is quite possible for the crews to have different perceptions. • Therefore, the aim of SA training to ensure that all flight crew members have good SA and a common and correct perception of the state of aircraft and environment.

  38. Key Points • Definition of SA • Requirement of SA • Establishing SA • Perceptive Process • Accurate Mental Model • What to be Aware? • Preparation for Good SA • Maintaining Good SA • Causes Loss of SA • Factor reduce SA • Prevention Loss of SA • Regaining SA