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FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687) PowerPoint Presentation
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FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

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FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687)

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  1. FC.97 THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY (c.1500-1687) Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22) Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion 5th element, ether, “perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Aristotle’s interlocking theories Must attack whole system in order to attack just 1 part New astron. data (e.g., comet & supernova) seem to contradict Aristotle Explanations, but still in context of Arist’s theories Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Arist. (FC. 76) Church backs Arist’s theories (FC. 66) Copernicus’ heliocentric theory to simplify system of epicycles (1543) Kepler uses math & Tycho Brahe’s data to show orbits are elliptical not circular Galileo’s use of math & experiment Much more dynamic scientific method New questions & theories about universe: Why don’t planets fly out of orbit? Why don’t planets crash together Centrifugal force Descarte’s law of motion (inertia) Isaac Newton fuses these ideas w/calculus into theory of universal gravity Same laws apply on earth as in heavens Scientific method fusing math, experiment & Aristotelian logic  Belief we can understand, predict & manipulate laws of nature Scientific basis for rapid progress of Industrial Rev. in 1800s (FC. 117)

  2. FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY Galen’s medical theories Few willing to undergo surgery Limited research & knowledge Galen’s medical theories Taboos vs. surgery & dissection Nothing to kill pain in surgery Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22) Incorrect analogies to human body Empty veins Idea air flows in them Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories: Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it Blood & air mix Pneuma Consciousness Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76) Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A) Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66) New findings contradicting Galen Explanations in context of Galen Vesalius (1514-1564): Paracelsus (1493-1541): Taught in vernacular Said factors outside the body caused disease Taught fr. experience Did his own dissections Anatomy book set standard of accuracy Made own instruments Mounting evidence contradicting Galen: Blood flows fr. arteries to veins & back toward heart Valves that prevent flow of blood out of the heart Air doesn’t flow naturally from the lungs to the heart William Harvey’s synthesis & book (1628) show blood constantly recirculates Further research on human anatomy

  3. FC.99 FROM FAITH TO REASON: DEISIM & ENLIGHTENMENT PHILOSOPHY Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) Renaissance & growing interest in ancient Greek Philosophy (FC. 76) Protestant Ref. breaks Eur. relig. unity (FC. 84) Rise of Feudal Monarchies in W. Europe (FC. 68) Religious wars disrupt Europe for a century (FC. 87) Kings challenge authority of pope in 1300s (FC. 72) Scientific revolution discredits Church’s views on the Universe & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason (FC. 97) People tired of religious conflict, corruption, & intolerance Rulers claim Divine Right of Kings & authority over Church Growing belief among intellectuals in replacing blind faith with faith and reason as the basis for religion Reason & faith, with reason being dominant Finally rely on reason alone DEISM: philosophy popular among intellectuals & based on ancient Greek Epicureanism: God exists, but is detached from this world like a watch maker who winds up the universe & lets it go Religious truth can only be found through reason, not divine inspiration or clerical authority Universal moral laws exist in all cultures around the globe, not just in Christian Europe Miracles do not exist, only natural phenomena we have not yet found reasons for Downplayed role of God in this world Humans have responsibility & power to solve their own social & economic problems (FC. 100)

  4. FC.100 ENLIGHTENMENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, & ECONOMIC IDEAS Rise of towns & money economy in the High Middle Ages (FC. 64) England’s rising economy (FC. 96C) Enlightenment & Deism (FC. 99) Rapidly changing society with new wealth, problems, & the need to solve them View that humanity can & must reform society since the Deist god is detached Search for the ideal society, or at least ways to remedy society’s ills French philosophers who are heavily influenced by John Locke: Montesquieu who wanted separation of powers in govt. Voltaire who called for more civil & polit. liberties Rousseau who wanted direct small scale democr’s French Rev. (FC. 105) Adam Smith’s economics: New ideas in psychology: Free trade Econ’s regulate themselves Everyone can profit Free trade People have incentive to work hard & be productive Helvetius: We are born blank slates We’re products of our environment Rousseau: We should treat childhood as separate stage of develop. Laissez Faire capitalism the dominant econ. theory in 1800s Modern theories of behavioral psychology

  5. FC.100A ENLIGHTENMENT, REVOLUTION, & WOMEN’S CHANGING ROLES Views by French philosophers on liberty and equality (FC. 100) Enl. View that women are closer to nature than men contradictory conclusions: Enl. Criticisms of slavery open way for women to advocate equal rt’s for themselves Many phil’s (eg., Montesquieu, Voltaire, & Diderot) concede women are rational beings like men Women are less rational than men Domestic. defined soc. role B/c nature compared to civ is good  Women are as good as men Overall a more positive view of women, despite views of Rousseau & Enl. Dr’s that women are distinctly inferior to men Louis XIV’s court at Versailles dominates Fr. socially & intellectually (FC. 95) 1600s: Women at ct. start holding intellectual salons that attract men of lower status than hostess Hostess controls agenda 1700s: Salons move from court’s infl. to more public venues, but still hosted by women which is compatible w/their perceived domest. roles French Rev. (FC. 105) French Rev. (FC. 105) Hostesses take active part in discussions & even get their own works published Opens way for other women (e.g., Elizabeth Vigee Lebrun) Rising involvement of women in Revolution & expectations of more rights reflected in: M. Wollstonecraft’s “Vindication of the Rights of Women” (1792) advocates equal rts for women Women’s restrictive corsets & huge powdered wigs replaced by more nat’l Neo-Class. styles Napoleon (FC. 106) Napoleon (FC. 106) Napoleon’s Milit. Cult.Women back in subservient status Greater diff’s b/w sexes as seen in Women: Return of corsets along w/bustles & hats to cover hair Men: Facial hair & drab colored clothes except neck ties Ind. Rev. (FC. 111) New factors that allow women to work for equal rights (FC. 114) Ind. Rev. (FC. 111)

  6. FC.101 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT STATE Feudalism (FC.41.2) Politically & culturally fragmented realm, but still unified in theory by loyalty to the same king Rise of kings (FC.68) Rise of towns (FC.64) Prot. Ref. Idea all believers are equal Discredits Divine Right of Kings (FC.84) English Revolution (FC.96) Dutch revolt vs. Sp. (FC.87) Abs. monarchs who use mercantilism to dev. econ. Bigger tax base (FC.94) Abs. monarchs who use mercantilism to dev. econ. Bigger tax base (FC.94) Locke’s idea that kings are responsible for their subjects’ welfare (FC.85.2) Growing awareness of relation b/w admin., econ., & polit. factors Better trained officials who take civil service exams to get jobs Public works (roads, bridges, etc.) to improve the economy Problems of mod. admin. imposed on feudal structure: Privileged tax-exempt nobles Heredit. kings are often incompetent Feudal dues burden peasants At first done for benefit of the king Idea emerges that state was working for the benefit of the people People expected more & more state services French Revolution (FC.105)

  7. FC.102 THE FLOW OF ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS New findings that contradict old theories Explanations in context of old theories Scientific Rev. of 1600s Scientific Rev. of 1600s New synthesis & theory: Newton’s synthesis in physics & astron. (FC.97) Harvey’s synthesis  Circulatory system (FC.98) Scientific basis for Indus. Rev. (FC.111) Scientific basis for Indus. Rev. (FC.111) Scientific Rev. discredits Church & raises belief in Humanity’s ability to reason  Deism  Humans can & must solve their own soc. & econ. problems (FC. 99) Enlightenment ideas about politics, econ., & psychology Blank slate theory Ideal envir.  Ideal people & soc. Belief in civil lib’s, democ, & sep. of powers in govt. Smith’s ideas on free trade capitalism (FC.100) (FC.100) Growing awareness of relation b/w admin., econ., & polit. factors Better trained officials who take civil service exams to get jobs Public works (roads, bridges, etc.) to improve the economy Problems of mod. admin. imposed on feudal structure: Rapid development of powerful new tech’s (FC.117) Rapid development of powerful new tech’s (FC.117) Privileged tax-exempt nobles Heredit. kings are often incompetent Feudal dues burden peasants 1st done for king’s benefit Idea the state was working for the benefit of the people People expect more from state (FC.101) (FC.101) French Revolution Its ideas spread across Eur. (FC.105) Spread of Eur. power & ideas across globe in 1800s (FC.122)

  8. FC.103 BALANCE OF POWER POLITICS IN EUROPE (1715-89) Peaceful recovery in Eur. for several years after Louis XIV’s wars (FC.95) Frederick Wm I builds up Prussian army & bur. Austria suffering econ. & military problems Frederick II of Pr., joined by France, Bavaria, Sweden, & Saxony gang up. vs Maria Theresa of Austria, who allies with Great Britain War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48)  Maria Theresa keeps her throne, but but loses Silesia to Prussia Wanting revenge vs. Pr., Austria renews alliance w/Russia Threatens Pr. w/2-front war DIPLOMATIC REVOLUTION OF 1756 DIPLOMATIC REVOLUTION OF 1756 Prussia allies w/Br. for two reasons: To get $ from Britain To deny Br. $ to Russia Fr. does two things. to counter Prussia’s move: Allies with its former enemy, Austria vs. Prussia & Britain Provides $ to Russia It can afford to fight Frederick II of Pr., seeing war as inevitable, invades Saxony for its resources Seven years War (1756-63) Great Britain vs. France Austria & Russia vs. Prussia Frederick clears one border of invaders Exposes another border to attack Superior Br. navy & finances Victories Fr. trade declines & Br. trade grows By 1763, everyone is worn out & ready for peace Treaty of Paris : Br. Becomes the main colonial power France is broke & its prestige damaged Russia emerges as a Eur. Power Austria kept status as a major power Prussia kept Silesia & big power status 3 partitions of Poland by Rus., Aus.,& Pr. (1772, 1793, 1795) Pol. at foreign powers’ mercy for 200 yrs France, in debt from this & helping Amer. Rev. vs. Br. French Revolution (FC.105)

  9. FC.103A THE POTATO AND ITS IMPACT Pizarro’s men rely on potato to survive while returning from Peru & bring it to Europe (FC 81) Potato can flourish in damp cool climate of NW Eur & produce 2-4X calories/acre as grain crops Initial resistance because: Its appearance-> Fear it caused leprosy It required more work (I.e.,hoeing) than grains Thirty Yrs War -> Armies strip peasants of their grain (FC. 88) Religious Wars-> Armies strip peasants of their grain (FC. 87) Potato spreads slowly to only a few places, such as N. Italy & just as a garden crop at 1st Peasants on Spanish Road along Rhine b/w Italy & Neth’s plant potatoes underground Louis XIV’s Wars devastate much of Ger. (FC. 95) Louis XIV’s Wars devastate much of Ger. (FC. 95) Foraging soldiers don’t find or want potatoes Peasants survive devastation of Relig. wars Potato agriculture spreads further across Germany 1734- Prince Fred. of Prussia, who had developed interest in agriculture while supervising royal estates, notices peasants farming potatoes during siege of Philippsburg on the Rhine 7 Years War devastates Prussia (FC.103) 7 Years War devastates Prussia (FC.103) 1740- Frederick, now Frederick II, orders Prussian peasants to farm potatoes in fallow fields Prussian peasants survive the war despites its destruction Potato cultivation spreads to France, Austria, & Russia Further spread of potato across N. Eur. during 1800s Ability to sustain huge armies of Napoleonic wars (FC.106) Ability to sustain huge armies of French Rev. Wars(FC.105C) Pop. growth needed to sustain workforce of Industr. Rev. & its cities (FC.111)

  10. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements

  11. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  12. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  13. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  14. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  15. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  16. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  17. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  18. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  19. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  20. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  21. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  22. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  23. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  24. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  25. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Theory of 4 elements: 3 states of matter + fire Objects seem to fall toward center of earth Heavenly bodies seem to orbit earth in perfect circles 5th element, ether,“perfect” circular orbits Theory of motion where terrestrial bodies in motion must stay in contact with “prime movers” Theory of geocentric (earth-centered) Univ. Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Aristotle’s theories of the universe & motion Greeks’ observations w/o modern instruments (FC. 22)

  26. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Q: Contributions of Tycho Brahe?

  27. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Q: Contributions of Tycho Brahe? Accurate observations of entire orbits of planets

  28. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Q: Contributions of Tycho Brahe? Accurate observations of entire orbits of planets ECT: Why did Brahe fight a duel & the result?

  29. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Q: Contributions of Tycho Brahe? Accurate observations of entire orbits of planets ECT: Why did Brahe fight a duel & the result? Who’s better at math; Lost part of his nose

  30. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Q: Contributions of Tycho Brahe? Accurate observations of entire orbits of planets ECT: Why did Brahe fight a duel & the result? Who’s better at math; Lost part of his nose Q: Questions facing scientists in the 1600's concerning planetary orbits?

  31. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Q: Contributions of Tycho Brahe? Accurate observations of entire orbits of planets ECT: Why did Brahe fight a duel & the result? Who’s better at math; Lost part of his nose Q: Questions facing scientists in the 1600's concerning planetary orbits? 1)Why don’t planets fly out of orbits?-> Gravity 2) Why don’t planets fall to earth?-> Centrifugal force

  32. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Q: Contributions of Tycho Brahe? Accurate observations of entire orbits of planets ECT: Why did Brahe fight a duel & the result? Who’s better at math; Lost part of his nose Q: Questions facing scientists in the 1600's concerning planetary orbits? 1)Why don’t planets fly out of orbits?-> Gravity 2) Why don’t planets fall to earth?-> Centrifugal force Q: Three parts of the scientific method?

  33. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Q: Contributions of Tycho Brahe? Accurate observations of entire orbits of planets ECT: Why did Brahe fight a duel & the result? Who’s better at math; Lost part of his nose Q: Questions facing scientists in the 1600's concerning planetary orbits? 1)Why don’t planets fly out of orbits?-> Gravity 2) Why don’t planets fall to earth?-> Centrifugal force Q: Three parts of the scientific method? Logical theory supported by math & proven by experiment

  34. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Q: Contributions of Tycho Brahe? Accurate observations of entire orbits of planets ECT: Why did Brahe fight a duel & the result? Who’s better at math; Lost part of his nose Q: Questions facing scientists in the 1600's concerning planetary orbits? 1)Why don’t planets fly out of orbits?-> Gravity 2) Why don’t planets fall to earth?-> Centrifugal force Q: Three parts of the scientific method? Logical theory supported by math & proven by experiment Q: Three things people believed we can do?

  35. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Q: Contributions of Tycho Brahe? Accurate observations of entire orbits of planets ECT: Why did Brahe fight a duel & the result? Who’s better at math; Lost part of his nose Q: Questions facing scientists in the 1600's concerning planetary orbits? 1)Why don’t planets fly out of orbits?-> Gravity 2) Why don’t planets fall to earth?-> Centrifugal force Q: Three parts of the scientific method? Logical theory supported by math & proven by experiment Q: Three things people believed we can do? Understand, predict, & manipulate laws of nature

  36. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Q: Contributions of Tycho Brahe? Accurate observations of entire orbits of planets ECT: Why did Brahe fight a duel & the result? Who’s better at math; Lost part of his nose Q: Questions facing scientists in the 1600's concerning planetary orbits? 1)Why don’t planets fly out of orbits?-> Gravity 2) Why don’t planets fall to earth?-> Centrifugal force Q: Three parts of the scientific method? Logical theory supported by math & proven by experiment Q: Three things people believed we can do? Understand, predict, & manipulate laws of nature Q: Factors preventing research on human anatomy?

  37. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Q: Contributions of Tycho Brahe? Accurate observations of entire orbits of planets ECT: Why did Brahe fight a duel & the result? Who’s better at math; Lost part of his nose Q: Questions facing scientists in the 1600's concerning planetary orbits? 1)Why don’t planets fly out of orbits?-> Gravity 2) Why don’t planets fall to earth?-> Centrifugal force Q: Three parts of the scientific method? Logical theory supported by math & proven by experiment Q: Three things people believed we can do? Understand, predict, & manipulate laws of nature Q: Factors preventing research on human anatomy? Religious taboos & lack of anesthetics

  38. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Q: Contributions of Tycho Brahe? Accurate observations of entire orbits of planets ECT: Why did Brahe fight a duel & the result? Who’s better at math; Lost part of his nose Q: Questions facing scientists in the 1600's concerning planetary orbits? 1)Why don’t planets fly out of orbits?-> Gravity 2) Why don’t planets fall to earth?-> Centrifugal force Q: Three parts of the scientific method? Logical theory supported by math & proven by experiment Q: Three things people believed we can do? Understand, predict, & manipulate laws of nature Q: Factors preventing research on human anatomy? Religious taboos & lack of anesthetics Q: Galen's view of the heart and blood circulation?

  39. The Scientific Revolution in the Enlightenment Q: Aristotle's theory of the universe, motion and the elements Q: Why Aristotle's theories were so hard to attack They were interlocking-> To attack 1 you had to attack all Q: Role of the Renaissance in the history of science It found ancient sources contradicting Aristotle Q: Contribution of Copernicus? Heliocentric theory ECT: Signif. of the numbers 80 & 34? Number of epicycles Copernicus’ system reduced it to. Q: Kepler’s 3 contributions? 1)Elliptical orbits; 2) planets’ orbits carve out equal areas in = times; A3=P2 where A= the # of astronomical units of a planet from the sun & P=Time of orbit ECT: What was Kepler’s mother tried for? Witchcraft Q: Contributions of Galileo? Made experimentation & math crucial aspects of science Q: Contributions of Tycho Brahe? Accurate observations of entire orbits of planets ECT: Why did Brahe fight a duel & the result? Who’s better at math; Lost part of his nose Q: Questions facing scientists in the 1600's concerning planetary orbits? 1)Why don’t planets fly out of orbits?-> Gravity 2) Why don’t planets fall to earth?-> Centrifugal force Q: Three parts of the scientific method? Logical theory supported by math & proven by experiment Q: Three things people believed we can do? Understand, predict, & manipulate laws of nature Q: Factors preventing research on human anatomy? Religious taboos & lack of anesthetics Q: Galen's view of the heart and blood circulation? Heart creates blood-> Absorbed by the body

  40. Q: Role of the Renaissance and the Univ. of Padua?

  41. Q: Role of the Renaissance and the Univ. of Padua? Academic freedom-> Major research center

  42. Q: Role of the Renaissance and the Univ. of Padua? Academic freedom-> Major research center Q: Paracelsus and his ideas on disease

  43. Q: Role of the Renaissance and the Univ. of Padua? Academic freedom-> Major research center Q: Paracelsus and his ideas on disease Idea that disease is caused by factors outside of our body

  44. Q: Role of the Renaissance and the Univ. of Padua? Academic freedom-> Major research center Q: Paracelsus and his ideas on disease Idea that disease is caused by factors outside of our body Q: Vesalius and his contributions?

  45. Q: Role of the Renaissance and the Univ. of Padua? Academic freedom-> Major research center Q: Paracelsus and his ideas on disease Idea that disease is caused by factors outside of our body Q: Vesalius and his contributions- First highly accurate anatomy book

  46. Q: Role of the Renaissance and the Univ. of Padua? Academic freedom-> Major research center Q: Paracelsus and his ideas on disease Idea that disease is caused by factors outside of our body Q: Vesalius and his contributions- First highly accurate anatomy book Q: Feedback on new discoveries and explanations?

  47. Q: Role of the Renaissance and the Univ. of Padua? Academic freedom-> Major research center Q: Paracelsus and his ideas on disease Idea that disease is caused by factors outside of our body Q: Vesalius and his contributions- First highly accurate anatomy book Q: Feedback on new discoveries and explanations? New evidence seemingly contradicting old authority<->Explained/rationalized in context of old theories

  48. Q: Role of the Renaissance and the Univ. of Padua? Academic freedom-> Major research center Q: Paracelsus and his ideas on disease Idea that disease is caused by factors outside of our body Q: Vesalius and his contributions- First highly accurate anatomy book Q: Feedback on new discoveries and explanations? New evidence seemingly contradicting old authority<->Explained/rationalized in context of old theories Q: William Harvey's synthesis?

  49. Q: Role of the Renaissance and the Univ. of Padua? Academic freedom-> Major research center Q: Paracelsus and his ideas on disease Idea that disease is caused by factors outside of our body Q: Vesalius and his contributions- First highly accurate anatomy book Q: Feedback on new discoveries and explanations? New evidence seemingly contradicting old authority<->Explained/rationalized in context of old theories Q: William Harvey's synthesis? Showed blood recirculates rather than getting absorbed by the body

  50. Q: Role of the Renaissance and the Univ. of Padua? Academic freedom-> Major research center Q: Paracelsus and his ideas on disease Idea that disease is caused by factors outside of our body Q: Vesalius and his contributions- First highly accurate anatomy book Q: Feedback on new discoveries and explanations? New evidence seemingly contradicting old authority<->Explained/rationalized in context of old theories Q: William Harvey's synthesis? Showed blood recirculates rather than getting absorbed by the body ECT: Astounding discovery defending this theory?