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Tuberculosis in Children: Treatment and Monitoring

Tuberculosis in Children: Treatment and Monitoring

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Tuberculosis in Children: Treatment and Monitoring

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  1. Module 10B - March 2010 Tuberculosis in Children: Treatment and Monitoring

  2. Project Partners Funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)

  3. Module Overview • Treating childhood TB • Monitoring the pediatric patient on TB treatment

  4. Learning Objective Upon completion of this session, participants will be able to: • Determine the appropriate treatment regimen for a child with tuberculosis • State the circumstances under which corticosteroids should be added to the regimen • Name the essential monitoring that should occur when a child is under treatment for tuberculosis

  5. Treating Childhood TB

  6. Treating Childhood TB • Treatment regimens for children are based on prior treatment history and clinical presentation • Most children with TB have uncomplicated (smear-negative) pulmonary/intrathoracic TB or non-severe forms of EPTB • The principles for TB treatment in the HIV-infected child are the same as in the HIV-uninfected child

  7. Treating Childhood TB (2) • WHO has updated dosage recommendations for children based on pharmacokinetic studies and expert consultation • Weight should be monitored throughout treatment and dose adjusted for weight increases • Pediatric intermittent dosing recommendations are under review • Ethambutol and streptomycin are the only drugs with approved pediatric thrice weekly dosing

  8. Pediatric Dosing Table

  9. Recommended Regimens H= isoniazid; R= rifampicin; Z= pyrazinamide; E= ethambutol; PTB= pulmonary TB; EPTB= extra-pulmonary TB; HIV= human immunodeficiency virus

  10. Recommended Regimens (2) H= isoniazid; R= rifampicin; Z= pyrazinamide; E= ethambutol; S= streptomycin; PTB= pulmonary TB; EPTB= extra-pulmonary TB; MDR-TB= multidrug resistant tuberculosis

  11. Treating TB Meningitis H = isoniazid; R = rifampicin; Z = pyrazinamide; S = streptomycin; Eth = ethionamide; WHO = World Health Organization

  12. Use of Corticosteroids • Recommended in all cases of TB meningitis • Dosage= 2mg/kg daily x 4 weeks then gradually reduced (tapered) over 1-2 weeks • Corticosteroids may be used for the management of other complicated forms of TB such as: • Complications of airway obstruction from lymphatic TB • TB pericarditis

  13. Monitoring the Pediatric Patient on TB Treatment

  14. Monitoring Challenges • Bacteriological monitoring of treatment response is not practical in most children • Monitoring for toxicity is more difficult • Need to find ways to get the child to take the treatment as the taste is often not pleasant to the child

  15. Dosing Tips • Anticipate a trial-and-error period at start • Layer vehicle and drug on a spoon • Possible vehicles to hide drug in: • syrup, chili, jam, baby food, pudding, etc. • Teach child to take contents of spoon without chewing • Follow medication with a liquid or other food the child likes to clear palate • Be prepared to try new methods or incentives • Never let the child think the dose is optional

  16. Treatment Adherence • Educate about TB and the importance of completing treatment • Encourage and support the child, parent(s) and immediate family • Observe administration of treatment (DOT)

  17. Treatment Adherence (2) • All children should receive treatment free of charge, whether or not the child is smear-positive at diagnosis • When they become available, pediatric fixed-dose combinations should be used whenever possible to improve simplicity and adherence • Patient treatment cards are recommended for documenting treatment adherence

  18. Hospitalization • Children with severe forms of TB should be hospitalized for intensive management where possible • Conditions that merit hospitalization include: • TB meningitis and miliary TB, preferably for the first 2 months • Any child with respiratory distress • Spinal TB • Severe adverse events, such as clinical signs of hepatotoxicity (e.g., jaundice)

  19. Monitoring Throughout Treatment • Ideally, each child should be assessed by the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) (or those designated by the NTP to provide treatment) at least at the following intervals: • 2 weeks after treatment initiation • Monthly until end of the intensive phase • Every 2 months until treatment completion

  20. Monitoring Throughout Treatment (2) • The assessment should include, at a minimum: • Review of symptoms • Review of adherence • Enquiry about any adverse events • Weight measurement • Review of the patient treatment card • Follow-up sputum for AFB smear microscopy, especially at 2 months for any child who was sputum smear-positive at diagnosis

  21. Monitoring Throughout Treatment (3) • The NTP is responsible for organizing treatment in line with the Stop TB Strategy, and ensuring the recording and reporting of cases and their outcomes • Good communication is necessary between the NTP and clinicians treating children with TB • Adverse events noted by clinicians should be reported to the NTP

  22. Immune Reconstitution • This temporary exacerbation of symptoms, signs, or radiographic manifestations sometimes occurs after beginning anti-TB treatment • Can simulate worsening disease with fever and increased size of lymph nodes or tuberculomas • Can be brought about by improved nutritional status or by the anti-TB treatment itself • Can occur after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children with TB, and is known as the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)

  23. Summary • Treatment regimens for children are based on prior treatment history and clinical presentation • Pediatric dosages for the first-line anti-TB drugs have changed based on new pharmacokinetic evidence • Use of pediatric FDC formulations when available along with other treatment adherence strategies should be used to simplify standard regimen administration and improve adherence • Regular monitoring throughout treatment should occur as described to ensure clinical improvement and adherence