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Your pain ≈ my pain

Your pain ≈ my pain

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Your pain ≈ my pain

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  1. ‘Neural resonance’ Singer et al. (2006) Your pain ≈ my pain

  2. ‘Neural resonance’ Your disgust ≈ my disgust Wicker et al., (2003), Neuron

  3. ‘Neural resonance’ Your goals ≈ my goals see Rizzolatti & Craighero (2004), Annual Rev Neurosci

  4. Thinking about self Thinking about other’s minds Mitchell, 2009, Trends in Cognitive Sciences

  5. To use myself as a basis for understanding another person, I must perceive us as appropriately similar

  6. Experiment 1

  7. He considers himself a typical college student. While he respects religion, his politics are relatively left of center. He deeply wanted Kerry to win the last election, and still can’t quite believe that Bush managed to be re-elected. In addition to his academic interests, he keeps himself busy at college with a variety of extra-curricular activities; for example, over the last year, he has participated in intramurals for his House and helped with his House Committee. After graduation, he plans to take a year or two off before returning to graduate school. He would ultimately like to have the kind of career where the work is fulfilling and rewarding. Mitchell, Macrae, & Banaji, 2006, Neuron Experiment 1

  8. Experiment 1 He considers himself a typical college student. While he respects religion, his politics are relatively left of center. He deeply wanted Kerry to win the last election, and still can’t quite believe that Bush managed to be re-elected. In addition to his academic interests, he keeps himself busy at college with a variety of extra-curricular activities; for example, over the last year, he has participated in intramurals for his House and helped with his House Committee. After graduation, he plans to take a year or two off before returning to graduate school. He would ultimately like to have the kind of career where the work is fulfilling and rewarding. Mitchell, Macrae, & Banaji, 2006, Neuron

  9. Experiment 1 He has considered himself a fundamentalist Christian for the past four years. He attends church every Sunday, in addition to several prayer services on his college campus, the University of Missouri. Because of his religious convictions, he is a strong supporter of the Republican party. He feels strongly about the Republican party’s social platform. In fact, during the last election, he was a very active member of the United Republican Brethren group on campus, which helped raise money for the Bush campaign through a variety of faith-based fundraising events. After college, he hopes to be able to settle down and start a family. He hopes to have the kind of career that would allow his future wife to stay at home and have a large family. Mitchell, Macrae, & Banaji, 2006, Neuron

  10. Experiment 1 L R Worry about getting a good summer job? 1 = very unlikely 2 = somewhat unlikely 3 = somewhat likely 4 = very likely Mitchell, Macrae, & Banaji, 2006, Neuron

  11. How do we mentalize? Experiment 4 Experiment 1 L R Worry about getting a good summer job? 1 = very unlikely 2 = somewhat unlikely 3 = somewhat likely 4 = very likely Mitchell, Macrae, & Banaji, 2006, Neuron

  12. Experiment 1 L R Worry about getting a good summer job? 1 = very unlikely 2 = somewhat unlikely 3 = somewhat likely 4 = very likely Mitchell, Macrae, & Banaji, 2006, Neuron

  13. Experiment 1 • Prefer to go grocery shopping over doing laundry • Enjoy spending a few hours in a contemporary art museum • Believe that a man should pay for dinner on a date • Enjoy having a roommate from another country • Get frustrated sitting in traffic L R Mitchell, Macrae, & Banaji, 2006, Neuron

  14. not-me me Experiment 1 me not-me me mine my they theirs them L R Mitchell, Macrae, & Banaji, 2006, Neuron

  15. Experiment 1 Mean diff = 81.3 ms t(14) = 2.67, p < .02 Mitchell, Macrae, & Banaji, 2006, Neuron

  16. Implicitly similar to liberal other Implicitly dissimilar from liberal other Experiment 1 Mitchell, Macrae, & Banaji, 2006, Neuron

  17. Experiment 1 Simlar > Dissimilar Mitchell, Macrae, & Banaji, 2006, Neuron

  18. r = .54, p < .05 Experiment 1 Simlar > Dissimilar Mitchell, Macrae, & Banaji, 2006, Neuron

  19. Experiment 1 Thinking about self

  20. Experiment 2

  21. Experiment 2

  22. L R enjoys skiing? + likes romance novels? L R enjoys travel? Experiment 2 L R hates traffic? enjoys action movies? L R likes laundry? looks forward to Xmas?

  23. Experiment 2 Explicit self-reference task BUSH + talkative SELF + daring + BUSH + polite SELF + dependable Jenkins, Macrae, & Mitchell (2008), Proc Natl Acad Sci

  24. Experiment 2 Explicit self-reference task BUSH + talkative SELF + daring + BUSH + polite SELF + dependable Jenkins, Macrae, & Mitchell (2008), Proc Natl Acad Sci

  25. Experiment 2 Self > Bush Jenkins, Macrae, & Mitchell (2008), Proc Natl Acad Sci

  26. self only Experiment 2 + L R enjoys skiing? Jenkins, Macrae, & Mitchell (2008), Proc Natl Acad Sci

  27. self only self-after-self Experiment 2 L R enjoys skiing? enjoys skiing? Jenkins, Macrae, & Mitchell (2008), Proc Natl Acad Sci

  28. self only self-after-self self-after-dissimilar Experiment 2 L R likes laundry? likes laundry? Jenkins, Macrae, & Mitchell (2008), Proc Natl Acad Sci

  29. self only self-after-self self-after-similar self-after-dissimilar Experiment 2 L R hates traffic? hates traffic? Jenkins, Macrae, & Mitchell (2008), Proc Natl Acad Sci

  30. Can we affect the use of self-reference to understand others?

  31. Experiment 3

  32. Experiment 3 Meeting a friend for lunch Ames, Jenkins, Banaji & Mitchell (2008), Psych Science

  33. Experiment 3 “I came back from the Guster concert around 3 in the morning & managed to catch a few hours of sleep before getting up to teach at the local Saturday school. My eyes are puffy from the lack of sleep; I hope Jennifer doesn’t notice when I meet her for lunch this afternoon. She’s been having trouble with her boss & I’ll have to try my hardest to look attentive & concerned.” Ames, Jenkins, Banaji & Mitchell (2008), Psych Science

  34. Experiment 3 Going to class on the first day of a new semester Ames, Jenkins, Banaji & Mitchell (2008), Psych Science

  35. Experiment 3 “She was just dropped off at college. After a long drive to her new school, she is finally there. Her parents helped her move into her dormroom. As she was moving in, her roommate showed up. She seemed quiet and a little different from any of her old friends. After unpacking, she said goodbye to her parents. Her mom cried while her dad tried not to. It was sad, but she was happy to finally be at college and on her own. She went off to orientation a little concerned about fitting in and making new friends, but still excited to begin a new journey.” Ames, Jenkins, Banaji & Mitchell (2008), Psych Science

  36. Experiment 3 Generally prefers juice to soda 1 = very unlikely 2 = somewhat unlikely 3 = somewhat likely 4 = very likely Ames, Jenkins, Banaji & Mitchell (2008), Psych Science

  37. Experiment 3 Generally prefers juice to soda 1 = very unlikely 2 = somewhat unlikely 3 = somewhat likely 4 = very likely Ames, Jenkins, Banaji & Mitchell (2008), Psych Science

  38. Experiment 3 Generally prefers juice to soda 1 = very unlikely 2 = somewhat unlikely 3 = somewhat likely 4 = very likely Ames, Jenkins, Banaji & Mitchell (2008), Psych Science

  39. p < .05 Experiment 3 self > (first + third) Ames, Jenkins, Banaji & Mitchell (2008), Psych Science