WORK – LIFE BALANCE Emerging Psychological Risks related to OSH. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work 8 – 9 April, 2008 Brussels Prof. Dr. Nuria Chinchilla, IESE Business School W F S
New Context • Women in business • International careers • “Never-ending” workdays
Ooohh now, of course: What are you doing Gonzalez?!! What are you doing Gonzalez?!! But every time Gonzalez took work to do at home, no one came to ask me: What are you doing Gonzalez?!! 4
Womenin the labour market (Eurostat)
What criteria are important to you when making a decision regarding your professional career?
How much do you agree with the following statements? Feeling of “double workday” Bearing alone the family burden Husband/boss lack of understanding Husband as a burden
Professional Reorientation Create my own business As a freelance In another company
How much support do you receive on your dual professional and family responsibility? Emotional support Professional support Educational support Home support
Two different approaches: • 1)To adapt the whole life to one’s • career • 2)To adapt the career to one’s life
1) To adapt the whole life to one’s career It has been a subtle—not explicitly chosen process, not a deliberate decision
What is happening? • Low birthrate (below 2,1) • Mean age when first child is born (32 years) • Children’s education in the hands of others • Divorce (one every 3 minutes) • Health problems (stress, depression) • High expenditure on tranquilizers (more time off due to stress than to maternity leave)
BIRTH RATE The European Birth rate is very low (1,5) too far from the Generational Replacement Level:2,1 children/womanand below the expectations of Europeans: 2,3 The best:Ireland: 1,99France: 1,90Finland: 1,80Denmark:1,78UK:1,74The worst:Greece: 1,29Germany: 1,3Spain: 1,32Italy: 1,34 Fuente: Eurostat. Elaboración IPF
Time´s Vicious Cycle Less quantity and quality of time PERSONAL AND FAMILY LIFE CONFLICTS AND STRESS Reduction of family support CONFLICTS WORK STRESS SPILL-OVER FAMILY-TO-WORK CONFLICT SPILL-OVER WORK-TO-FAMILY CONFLICT 80% 20%
WHAT WOMEN SAY: Go to the market , clean the sofa and wash the dishes, look for milk, hung the clothes, clean the dust from the TV, buy some soap and take out the dog for a while WHAT MEN UNDERSTAND…. Go tothe market , cleanthe sofa andwash the dishes,lookfor milk, hung the clothes, clean the dust fromthe TV, buy some soap and take out the dogfor a while
VALUES FAMILY Companionship, harmony, respect, confidence WORK/ PLACE The same values RESULTS HAPPINESS/ QUALITY OF LIFE • Benefits • Commitment • Productivity
FAMILY: is a SCHOOL of COMPETENCIES JOINT CAPITAL CONTRIBUTION CONVERGENCE OF IDEAS MONITORING SUCCESS AND MISTAKES FAMILY = SME Opening MARKETS CUSTOMER SERVICE Executing PLANS
“The real skills of leadership mirror the skills of effective parenting” “The fifth Discipline” P. Senge
1 Customer- orientation 2 Leadership 3 Integrity 4 Initiative 5 Teamwork 6 Communication 7 Business vision 8 Personal improvement 9 Decision making 10 Interfunctional orientation Most valued management skills Fuente: Cardona, P.; Chinchilla, N., García, P.: “Las competencias directivas más valoradas”, IESE, WP 01/4
2) To adapt one’s career to one’s life There are initiatives—in the firms and governments—that facilitate such adaptation: family policies, flexible work arrangements,... However, it is still very much a personal effort, even in the case of being eligible for those arrangements.
- - + + Éxito objetivo Objetive success + Model Reference Modelo Realizada Self- realized Subjetive success Famosa Famous Unsuccessful Fracasada - What do we mean by “success” ?
What can we learn from people who are VERY satisfied both in their careers and their lives? 1.- They align one’s work demands, one’s spouse’s demands, and one’s family situation. 2.- They re-asses their notion of career success, focusing on the “net gains”: career, family, personal life. 3.- They purposefully set boundaries that facilitate to meet expectations in each life’s domain.
To align one’s work demands, one’s spouse’s demands, and one’s family situation means: • To have a dynamic flexibility and re-assessment (not only in the company but especially at home). • a) With one’s spouse: Who is doing what and when. • b) With one’s company: What are the options, and how can I access them. How to redefine the job. What is feasible. Dynamic adaptation.
Companies’ destructive capacity • Pollution in nature (ecology) • Pollution in society (human ecology) • Double effect: • Social (external) • Business (internal)
4 Levels of development in Companies D No FR Policies C Few policies or don’t really use them B Have policies and put them into practice A Have a FR culture
Elements of a Family Responsible Enterprise 2. Facilitadores 1. Policies 2. Facilitators Job flexibility Professional support Liderazgo Comunicación Leadership Communication 4. Results Family services Non-salary benefits Responsabilidad Estrategia Strategy Responsibility 3. Culture: Hindrances / Promoters
Mecha-nistic Psycho-sociological Anthro-pological
10 Steps to become a FR company 1- Senior management commitment (budget included). 2- Work & Family coordinating committee. 3- Company diagnosis: self-diagnosis IFREI: 4- Family employees needs information. 5- Integral Balance Plan development. 6- Manual for Policies application. 7- Leadership of top managers. 8- Family values explicitly included in the corporate mission ( as new stakeholders). 9- Development of policies and processes. 10- Measure the use of policies to adjust and Benchmark. http://www.iesedti.com/ifrei2006/ifrei.htm
IFREI in the World European countries Spain Philippines Portugal Mexico Guatemala Venezuela Singapore El Salvador Ecuador Nigeria Kenya Colombia Brazil New Zealand Peru Uruguay Chile Argentina