CHAPTER 17 Maintaining Balance: Work and Life
Chapter 17 Objectives • Define work-life balance and describe the benefits to both employer and employee. • Identify some of the physical and mental effects of stress and learn ways to minimize these effects. • Understand the effects of substance abuse on job performance and how companies try to minimize these effects.
Chapter 17 Objectives • Describe several methods of effective time management. • Discuss the importance of maintaining proper health practices.
Work-Life Benefits • Work-life benefits are benefits that employers offer to help employees gain some measure of balance between work and home. • In 2003-2004, 50% of employers increased the number of work-life benefits they offered. • Work-life benefits help companies • Raise morale. • Enhance recruitment efforts. • Stay competitive. • Increase their image in the industry.
Factors Affecting Work-Life Benefits • Demographics • More working parents in the workforce • More older workers in the workforce • Technology advancements • Location and time flexibility • The meaning of work • Paid work • Home work • Gift work • Study work
Stress • Stress is a physical response to environmental pressures. • Physical and psychological challenges trigger a stress reaction. • With the rapid pace and pressures of daily life and work, we are constantly under stress and have little time to reenergize.
Stress Overload • Excess stress may result in physical or mental disorders and unhealthy behaviors. • A healthy lifestyle can help you deal with stress and other health-related matters. • Types of stressors: • Emotional Stressors—worries, conflicts, rushing • Physical stressors—poor nutrition, allergies • Chemical stressors—caffeine, cigarette smoke
Symptoms of Job Stress • Increased absenteeism • Reduced civility • Physical ailments • Sleep dysfunction • Reduced human interaction
Substance Abuse • Stress overload can lead to unhealthy behaviors, such as substance abuse. • Substance abuse is the misuse of alcohol, illegal drugs, or prescription drugs. • Costs U.S. businesses approximately $81 billion dollars each year in: • Decreased productivity • Absenteeism • Theft • Industrial accidents • Excessive benefits use
Commonly Abused Substances • Alcohol • Cocaine • Marijuana • Sedatives • Tranquilizers • Amphetamines • Club drugs • Inhalants • Hallucinogens • Narcotics • Anabolic steroids
Fighting Substance Abuse at Work • Employers try to curtail substance abuse through: • Drug testing • Pre-employment testing • Expected interval testing • Random interval testing • “For cause” testing • Treatment follow-up testing • Employee Assistance Programs • Employee education
Coming to Terms with Substance Abuse • Substance abuse damages • Relationships • Finances • Work • Health • If you recognize a problem, take action. • Use your company’s confidential employee assistance program. • Check the phone book for treatment and counseling centers in your area.
Dealing with Suspected Substance Abuse in Employees • Judge on performance and do not accuse employees. • Do not accept excuses for prolonged performance problems or absenteeism. Document all poor performance. • Help employees get treated if asked. • Do not preach or moralize. Offer assistance with tact and diplomacy. • Do not allow impaired employees to operate equipment. • Refuse to enable or cover up for them. • If performance does not improve, begin disciplinary action--up to and including discharge.
Symptoms of Poor Time Management • Indecision • Rushing and lateness (“white rabbit habit”) • Stress illnesses • Irritability and anger
Managing Time • Assess your time management habits. • Use a time log. • Make a time management action plan. • Desired result • Change required • Target Date • Actions Required • Key People Involved • Evaluate/modify • Minimize time wasters.
Identifying Time Wasters • Lack of planning • Drop-in visitors • Telephone “tag” • Procrastination • Ineffective meetings
Managing Meetings • Provide an advance agenda with timed subjects. • Invite only those people who are needed. • Start on time. • Set clear goals/purposes for the meeting. • Set time limits on the meeting and topics. • Prevent hidden agendas or disruptions by strictly adhering to your planned agenda. • Record and assign action items during the meeting. • Distribute meeting minutes within 48 hours. • Schedule an action item follow-up.
Maintaining Your Health • Eat a balanced diet and manage weight. • Limit alcohol and caffeine consumption. • Stop smoking. • Get regular exercise. • Use relaxation techniques. • Enjoy leisure time and stress-free activities. • Reduce stressful thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors. • Cultivate healthy attitudes and behaviors.
Leave Stress at the Office • Try to end the day as smoothly as possible. Start unwinding before you leave. • Make a list of what needs to be done the next day. • Maintain a positive perspective. • Use your commute to unwind. • Arrange for quiet time after work. • Do not make dinner an ordeal with fancy meals. Turn off the TV and limit work-related conversation. • Do not overschedule leisure hours.
Identify Personality Characteristics • Workaholics--consumed by their jobs and derive little pleasure from other activities. • Likely candidates for heart attacks, depression, hypertension, insomnia, and physical ailments. • Type A Personalities--highly competitive, aggressive, achievement-oriented, and impatient. • More likely to experience stress symptoms and twice as prone to cardiovascular diseases. • Type B personalities--more relaxed, easy-going, and even-paced in their approach to life in general. • Identify patterns in your personality and strive to reduce any Type A tendencies.
Key Terms • Tranquilizers • Amphetamines • Club drugs • Inhalants • Hallucinogens • Narcotics • Anabolic steroids • Sedatives • Work-life benefits • Stress • Substance abuse • Alcohol • Cocaine • Marijuana
Key Terms • Pre-employment drug testing • Expected interval testing • Random interval testing • “For cause” testing • Treatment follow-up testing • Enabling • Time management • Procrastination • Planned agenda • Hidden agenda • Workaholics • Type A personalities • Type B personalities