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Enterprise Architecture - What is Enterprise Architecture? PowerPoint Presentation
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Enterprise Architecture - What is Enterprise Architecture?

Enterprise Architecture - What is Enterprise Architecture?

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Enterprise Architecture - What is Enterprise Architecture?

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  1. Enterprise Architecture - What is Enterprise Architecture? April 12th, 2012 Siamak Amjadi

  2. What is €NTERPRI$€ all about?

  3. What is Architecture According to the Oxford Dictionary • “The art or science of building or constructing edifices of any kind for human use…” • “The special method or ‘style’ in accordance with which the details of the structure and ornamentation of a building are arranged.”

  4. What is Architecture • The organizational structure of a system or component. • IEEE Standard 610, “Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries” • The fundamental organization of a system embodied in its components, their relationships to each other, and to the environment, and the principles guiding its design and evolution. • IEEE Standard 1471, IEEE Recommended Practice for Architectural Description of Software-Intensive Systems.

  5. Enterprise Architecture … • The Enterprise is a company or an organisation with a defined set of ”offerings” based on a set of resources (including Information Technology) • Architecture is the art and science of designing structures and infrastructures. It is a method to describe the activity of designing any kind of system, (commonly used in IT). • Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a blueprint describing • Value streams and the organisation, which executes them. • The information structures to make the execution possible • The (IT) solutions to contain and maintain the information • The technology supporting the IT Solutions • Stakeholders and their interrelations • Strategic Roadmapping • EA enables the transformation of the Enterprise via an Enterprise-wide roadmapping and project portfolio

  6. What is a System Architecture … in contrast to EA • How to Design IT Solutions • Guidelines for how each component should be build • Descriptions such as OO, Class, design patterns etc • Differences between architecture and design • Many different designs may address the same need • Different architectures imply different needs Sample from reality: A house Architecture Design • Number of rooms • Main Structure • Character • Guiding ines • Interior design • Rooms structure • Electricity • Etc’

  7. What is Enterprise Architecture • Enterprise Architecture is not technical! • EA is a methodology to align the IT to the Business. • Answering all of the enterprise needs • Transverse view. • knowing and managing the current situation, paving the road for the wanted one. • Implementation of information management • Enforce homogeneous solutions and enable “One system” to the users.

  8. The TOGAF way • Never ending organization process which builds upon several stages: • Initiation • Business architecture. • Information architecture • Applications architecture • Infrastructure architecture • Governance • Gap analysis • And again …

  9. Overview of Enterprise Architecture Information Architecture Business Architecture • Logical Data Models • Physical Data Models • Data Management Resources • Business Strategy • Organization & Governance • Key Processes Solution Architecture Technology Architecture • Solution Blueprint • Component Interaction • Service definitions • Realtionships to Business Processes • Hardware • Software • Networlk infrastructure

  10. What Are You Doing? What Can You Change to be Better? How Are You Doing? Why?

  11. Therefore we need EA . . . . “You Can’t Manage What You Can’t Measure” — Peter Drucker

  12. Where / How Does €NTERPRI$€ Architecture Fit in Organizational development

  13. Stakeholders • Project Teams: • Project teams use the EA to gain an understanding of the current architectural landscape, the future vision of the enterprise architecture, and the services available to development teams. • Sponsors: • Sponsors can benefit from the EA by gaining an understanding of the technical direction of the company as well as the Architectural Governance Process. This knowledge can then be used to shape their decisions regarding IT investments. • Architecture Governors: • They can use EA to provide a consistent representation of the context and principles of both the current and future state during the project review process. • Portfolio Managers: • The use the EA to proactively identify potential risks in projects, and to assist in assessing the individual projects in order to mitigate technology risks.

  14. Best Practices in Architecture Review • Communicate regularly with all stakeholders : • Keep executives, support groups, architects, and developers in the loop on successes and objectives. • Use a mix of formal and informal authority: • The power to stop a project is important; avoiding the need to use it is even more important. • Tie your architecture process to project phases: • Project funding and staffing should require architecture sign-off, as should other project management phases. • Standardize architecture review process artifacts: • A consistent set of artifacts, with examples, streamlines the process and improves the quality of project team efforts.

  15. Enterprise Architecture and Maturity

  16. Company knows where it is and where it want to be. Planned reorganisations towards the target state.. Projects interact but not according to clear EA roadmaps. Some larger Initiatives are on the design table. Fostering innovation at the front lines 50 40 60 30 70 20 80 10 90 Typical 0 100 Company has improved the way it make strategies. It targets business-process and looks for optimal Product life-cycle opportunities. Projects interact in initiatives according to sketches EA roadmaps & guidelines. Visionary shift in mindset and paradigm. Awareness of need for common strategies and standards amongst senior mgmt. Initiatives to assess current state and near-future enterprise-wide needs and actions. Scattered projects with narrow focus. Current Strategies are unknown and/or undocumented. Overview on the current challenges are not organised. Scattered projects with narrow focus. Projects are focused around lines of business rather than processes & Product life-cycles. The Architecture of the Enterprise is communicated, understood and followed. Means to follow and implement them are available & supported. Portfolio mgmt, business process mgmt, business service mgmt align to EA agenda. Customer centric enterprise in continuous improvement is harvesting and measuring benefits Planning next steps. Strategyometer

  17. Performance Driven IT | Page 17 No process documentation Process tools Linked BPM and SOA strategies Process repository Process reuse No “recognition” of process problems No ‘culture of process’ Process controllership Processes linked to business strategy Multi-process, multi-department ….Enterprise BPM Classic Process metrics A culture of process in place Basic methodology Clear enterprise process methodology EA and Business Process Management Maturity Maturing Immature Mature Some documentation, but no sophisticated or integrated toolset Inter-Enterprise BPM

  18. Enterprise Architecture In a context

  19. Change Requirements Technologies A Simplified Demand Chain; mapped to EA Corporate Goals Demand Chain Business Vision Improve Time to Market Example Business Strategy Changes in Business Strategy Improve Product Design Process Business Approach Business Model Business Operations Changes in Business Model Reduce Process Change Time Business Architecture Improve Solution Delivery Time IT Strategies Information Architecture Solution Strategy Platforms & Patterns System simplifications And SOA Example Solution Architecture Technology Architecture Technology Architecture

  20. Scattered Information EverywhereYet, lacking an overall Enterprise Architecture Information • (How well do) We know our company • There are stacks of Information available everywhere • But . . . • Not all information are related • Not all are equally verified • Some need better structure • Others should be documented • Some should be defined • Others need be harmonized • Enterprise Architecture is meant to provide interrelated verified information for Business Ma'nagers and IT Managers . . . • . . . Putting pieces together Time

  21. A model? So simple? Enterprise Architecture is a Model to create this overall overview

  22. EA is to link the architecture of the Business (processes, products, operations etc), Business Information, the business supportingIT Solutions and Technologies to host the solutions. Its role is to provide a more intelligent basis for Application Decisions and yield to streamline the Application Portfolio, thereby strengthening the working relationship between Business Management and IT Management. It will assess and provide overview of compliance to Business Domains, Drivers, Requirements, Direction and Principles. EA governance links EA plans to IT actions, hence ensuring that, IT Planning, Project Portfolio Management and Project Execution align with business and enterprise goals. Business Domain Business Domain Business Domain Business Architecture Gap Analyses Information Architecture AS IS descriptions TO BE descriptions Solution Architecture Enterprise Architecture (EA) as a Concept • EA is to link the architecture of the Business (processes, products, operations etc), Business Information, the business supportingIT Solutionsand Technologiesto host the solutions. • Its role is to provide a more intelligent basis for Application Decisions and yield to streamline the Application Portfolio, thereby strengthening the working relationship between Business Management and IT Management. • It will assess and provide overview of compliance to Business Domains, Drivers, Requirements, Direction and Principles. • EA governance links EA plans to IT actions, hence ensuring that, IT Planning, Project Portfolio Management and Project Execution align with business and enterprise goals. • EA is to link the architecture of the Business (processes, products, operations etc), Business Information, the business supportingIT Solutions and Technologies to host the solutions. • Its role is to provide a more intelligent basis for Application Decisions and yield to streamline the Application Portfolio, thereby strengthening the working relationship between Business Management and IT Management. • It will assess and provide overview of compliance to Business Domains, Drivers, Requirements, Direction and Principles. • EA governance links EA plans to IT actions, hence ensuring that, IT Planning, Project Portfolio Management and Project Execution align with business and enterprise goals. • EA is to link the architecture of the Business (processes, products, operations etc), Business Information, the business supportingIT Solutions and Technologies to host the solutions. • Its role is to provide a more intelligent basis for Application Decisions and yield to streamline the Application Portfolio, thereby strengthening the working relationship between Business Management and IT Management. • It will assess and provide overview of compliance to Business Domains, Drivers, Requirements, Direction and Principles. • EA governance links EA plans to IT actions, hence ensuring that, IT Planning, Project Portfolio Management and Project Execution align with business and enterprise goals. • EA is to link the architecture of the Business (processes, products, operations etc), Business Information, the business supportingIT Solutions and Technologies to host the solutions. • Its role is to provide a more intelligent basis for Application Decisions and yield to streamline the Application Portfolio, thereby strengthening the working relationship between Business Management and IT Management. • It will assess and provide overview of compliance to Business Domains, Drivers, Requirements, Direction and Principles. • EA governance links EA plans to IT actions, hence ensuring that, IT Planning, Project Portfolio Management and Project Execution align with business and enterprise goals. Align with Enterprise Goals Technology Architecture

  23. B u s i n e s s Architecture Information Architecture S o l t u i o n Architecture Technology Architecture Business Model & Business Processes Key Information Entities & Flows IT Solution Portfolio Overview Technology Strategies/ Infrastructure Patterns

  24. May be not necessary to mention ... Business elements are not only in the Business Architecture. They are everywhere, and we as Enterprise Architects must educate the avarage stakeholders to understand their portion of Business Elements Business Architecture Information Architecture Solution Architecture BusinessElements BusinessElements BusinessElements BusinessElements TechnologyElements TechnologyElements TechnologyElements TechnologyElements Technology Architecture Enterprise Programme or Business Domain Solution and/or Project Just in case . . . Business is everywhere Context Concept Level of Abstraction Logical Physical

  25. Business Architecture Information Architecture Solution Architecture Technology Architecture The Function of Enterprise Architecture • EA is a Planning, Governance, and Innovation function. • EA helps IT management to understand and plan the changes, which are needed for IT in order to be in alignment with Business Needs and Directions. • EA marshals IT’s R&D and innovation activities toward serving the longterm business strategies. • EA leaders and BCIOs should position EA as part of IT Governance — not as a separate function — and make sure that this governance plays at different governance levels; starting at the overall IT Strategy & Plan and runs through Project Portfolio Governance to governance of individual projects • This will ensure that, IT planning, project portfolio management, and project execution align with enterprise goals.

  26. Business Architecture Information Architecture Solution Architecture Technology Architecture The Relevance of EA • Single source of information to (competing) strategic initiatives • The current and future initiatives in each enterprise, such as Project Portfolio Management (PPM), Strategic Planning processes, SOA adoptions, future Business Process Management (BPM)1, future Business Service Management (BSM)1, and application or process rationalization will be more successful if they reuse common strategic information. Providing this information is an ideal task for our EA repository. • We do face higher pressure for more rapid decision-making. • The challenge of minimizing risks from change becomes greater as our IT complexity increases. EA and our EA repository must provide capabilities for tracking interdependencies — offering Impact Analysis and Risk Analysis assisting prioritisation of the right initiatives. • Enterprises seek growth and increasing globalisation – while demanding Local Efficiency and Agility. • Organizations tend to share not only products and services between countries and regions, but increasingly also processes and applications — in addition to the IT infrastructure that many firms have already consolidated. But standardization and consolidation are not applied blindly. Successful firms also understand the peculiarities of local markets and thus adapt global best practices to local requirements. EA repositories and modeling tools allow analysis and modification of shared processes and applications. 1) The classic Enterprise Architecture models do not in specific include Business Process Management (BPM) & Business Service Management (BSM). The author has different view. Our maturity today calls for BPM and BSM. This view will be presented later in this presentation.

  27. Business Architecture Information Architecture Solution Architecture Technology Architecture Business Architecture (BA) The classic Enterprise Architecture models do not include Business Process Management & Business Service Management as a part of Business Architecture. The author has a different view, which will be presented later. • Communicate the business visions, strategies, priorities and needs across the business operations to provide direction and context to other architectural governance structures. • BA describes Business Operations, Value Chains and Business Processes 1. • BA presents the long-term business demands, policies, strategies and needs as well as the short-term prioritisations and budgeting. • This provides significant opportunities for understanding both long- and short-term interdependencies and implications (affecting IT decisions). 1) Business Organisations are dynamic and subject to (ir)regular changes. Business Operations, Value Propositions, and Value Chains (a customer centric view, hence a business process oriented view) are of a more stable nature. Thus, forming the Business Architecture based on customers centric Business Processes are more valuable than organisations.

  28. One way of keeping consistency between business architecture and IT initiatives is to have a clear information architecture. The Information Architecture presents a “Conceptual Information Model”, which reflects the business concepts (It supports the scoping and planning of projects.) The more descriptive “Logical Data Model” offers the detailed information/data structures, which are required to support the business concepts. (It supports the documentation of the data requirements from the enterprise perspective and from the business process perspective.) One more detailed model is to be developed together with projects (i.e. the semantics of the information). This model leads to definition of the Business Services’ crossing points. Business Architecture Information Architecture Solution Architecture Technology Architecture Business Information Architecture Data is a fundamental building block of Interoperability, information management and the design of efficient, non duplicative systems

  29. IT Solutions are to provide the business information, which is specified by the Information Architecture. Solution Architecture provides the “Infrastructure of applications and the IT solutions”, depicting the “logistics of business information” and the affiliation of business logic. This dimension of EA also illustrates the interrelations between business operations, business information and business logic. This knowledge will improve the consistency, quality, and interoperability of business solutions. Business Information and Business Logic can also be presented in terms of Business Services (often common cross business unit or Nordic services). This makes BSM – Business Service Management – an increasingly relevant topic in line with growing number of Services in NTP, Master Data Management, Document Management, CMS services plus others to come. (Se this slide.) BSM supports Business AND Information Architecture. Steps of executable business processes (in a process engine) are presented as business services (on a service bus). This makes BPM (Business Process Management – from an execution perspective) an emergent important part of Solution Architecture. BPM supports Business AND Information Architecture. Maintaining the appropriate role of each system Business Architecture Information Architecture Solution Architecture Technology Architecture Solution Architecture

  30. The technology architecture describes the technical platforms, infrastructure and technologies, which are required to run the business solutions. Technology Architecture includes: Hardware Platform Software The Network Infrastructure In most cases, the Facility Manager has the overall responsibility for our Technology Architecture. Organizations which outsource the facility management to a third party, often lose competence within this area. This results in a critical lack of overview and knowhow around TA. Business Architecture Information Architecture Solution Architecture Technology Architecture Is Half of the Agility Story Enough? Business Architecture Information Architecture Solution Archit ecture NP NP Technology Architecture Technology Architecture (TA)

  31. EA and Governance?

  32. Change Requirements Technologies A Simplified Demand Chain; mapped to EA Corporate Goals Demand Chain Business Vision Improve Time to Market Example Business Strategy Changes in Business Strategy Improve Product Design Process Business Approach Business Model Business Operations Changes in Business Model Reduce Process Change Time Business Architecture Improve Solution Delivery Time IT Strategies Information Architecture Solution Strategy Platforms & Patterns System simplifications And SOA Example Solution Architecture Technology Architecture Technology Architecture

  33. EA leaders and BCIOs should position EA as part of IT Governance — not as a separate function. They have to make sure that this governance plays at several governance levels; starting at the overall IT Strategy & Plan and runs through Project Portfolio Governance to governance of individual projects. (See next slide.) The practical implementation of such a governance structure will require to involve chief architects in multiple levels of governance path. IT policies should lay out the role of the EA function in setting directions, influencing plans, and approving project decisions. EA group heads must use their IT management sponsorship and credibility to achieve the mandat that is equivalent to what a policy would cover. (See next slide.) The basics of IT architecture governance takes the form of Nordea’s repository of Reference Architectures, Models, and Patterns. The project architects must seek (and governed) to re-use as much as possible from the Nordea’s assets that are relevant to the project at hand. One responsibility of the EA Governance is to innovate and to keep Nordea in the front of competitive edge – while avoiding unmanaged complexity in IT. EA governance may use the capabilities/opportunities of the large Initiatives and Transformations to introduce new patterns and/capabilities. (See the following slides.) Business Architecture Gov. IT Governance EA Governance Project Portfolio Governance IT Service Governance Project Governance Where to Place the EA Governance

  34. Business Architecture Governance IT Governance EA Governance Project Portfolio Governance IT Service Governance Project Governance EA Governance as a Part of IT Governance - OVERVIEW

  35. Enterprise Architecture Governance Alignment with business drivers and plans, EA Roadmaps & The EA To-Be State Sponsorship, credibility, communication channels Project Portfolio Governance Project Prioritisation and business case, project approvals, portfolio rationalisation/alignments (e.g. in programmes and other initiatives) IT Service Governance Business (SOA) Service Catalogue and Repository and Service Levels. (Service Management is currently only in NTP – soon elsewhere.) Support in Design work & Review at Project Gates Project Governance Schedule, cost, requirements, design, testing, change control EA Governance as a Part of IT Governance Business Architecture Governance IT Governance Overall Strategies, Priorities, Policies, Investment Decisions & Performance Metrics. IT Governance is about how IT investment decisions are made, who is involved, whatprocesses are used, and how decisions are tracked. business units road map & applications roadmaps Ongoing Business Needs, architecture needs/priorities CIOs must recognize EA Governing Boards, such as Architecture Forum Review Board, as an extension to the IT governance.

  36. Context Dependency of the Governance – Scale Transformation Initiatives Projects Projects Initiatives Projects Projects Projects Small Scale Large Scale Characteristics: • Discrete • Localized • Stable • Tactical • Short Term Characteristics: • Breakthrough • Enterprise • Destabilizing • Strategic • Medium Term Characteristics: • Continuous • Ubiquitous • Routine • Visionary • Longer Term They will be making decisions with little understanding of long- term dependencies or implications. Decisions are based on mid-term horizons and implications. Tend to reuse existing assets & introduce a few new. Long-term decisions, competitive advantages, innovative, build bridges and pave the way for the rest of Nordea.

  37. Governance and the Scale of the “Changes” • Projects • EA Governance yields to the shift of project focus from tactical, project-level architecture toward strategic target architecture. • Enhance the collaboration between projects and support teams as well as streamline use of technology – ensure a high level of reuse. • Initiatives (in addition to above) • Follow and enhance the enterprise architecture road map – with part time allocation of EA architects to the initiative. Support and Educate. • Create focus around BPM (Business Process Management) and BSM (Business Service Management). Address potentials of BPM across business operations/units. • Improving architecture governance (including SOA governance – reuse of/ producing Business Services according to target business needs). • Establish and drive architecture networks amongst unrelated teams to encourage architecture compliance • Transformations (in addition to above) • We have to establish a well organized collaboration with full time allocations of EA chief architect(s). Follow and develop EA roadmap (including storyboard to diminish older/obsolete patterns ). • Organise BPM and BSM teams/projects. Identify reusable (may be foundation-creating) services and business assets in alignment with the long-term Business Visions and roadmaps. • EA Chief Architects must identify potentials for IT innovation, thus they can enable & accelerate the execution of the transformation and/or ensure the achievement of the goals.

  38. These roles collaborate in the broad decision making processes. Change Planning • The Enterprise Architecture Board(Must be established.) • Nordea’s EA Board, owned or sponsored by the Business Architecture Domain Owners & Key Stakeholders • Business Domain or Programme Architecture Boards • Board of Architects for Business Domains; with specific knowledge of Business and the Solutions supporting the Business Domain DesignAuthorities Domain DesignAuthorities • Solution Architecture Boards • Project Architects with specific knowledge of the Solutions and the architectural (technology) patterns. Solution Design Authorities Solution Design Authorities Solution Design Authorities Solution Design Authorities

  39. Project Justifications and Goals Enterprise Designs Trans- formation Projects Road maps Capabilities Interdependencies Resources Implementation Project priority & scope • Roadmaps for business units • Other initiatives . • Ensure Consistency. • Provide insights . • Design Standards • Design Elements Project Designs Project Linkages Perspectives in EA Governance Business Strategy and Planning Vision Culture Values Opportunities Strategies Goals Options Priorities Directions Guidelines Align project execution with Nordea overall Business Goals. Design and Feedback Loop to Nordea Enterprise Architecture Collaboration, Support, Education, Review Where the rubber hits the ground! Innovation and value guiding principles Enabling architectural and technical capability Portfolio Management and Alignment Enterprise Architecture Link Enterprise Architecture & Business Plans to IT actions Business Project Selection & execution

  40. Business Unit A Business Unit B Business Unit C Business Unit D Vertical HierarchySilo Mentality within Business Units HorizontalCustomer Centred Core Process 1 Core Process 2 Core Process 3 EA, Communication, Changes & Transformations • Interaction between the EA Architects and the Business Decision-makers • Our EA governance processes should be designed thus they would increase the degree of interaction between the EA Architects and the Business Decision-makers. This yields to abridge the traditional gap/distance between IT and Business. • EA to put both future and current needs on the agenda • We need feedback processes, which ensure that the EA programme does not simply lay down the EA view of how the future should be, but also, set the current-day needs and priorities on the agenda. This is to provide a strong dose of “reality” to EA’s planning activities. • Different EA architect to fill the described roles • As of today only a limited number of individuals in Nordea are able to fill these roles. In order to get there we have to educate and train our EA architects to put up with their EA roles. They must be involved in all different phases of change planning such as Innovation, Strategic Planning, Execution. • Innovative Thinking, Strategic Planning, Execution • Next slide illustrates how a modern transformation process involves Business and IT – in different organisational levels and for different purposes. • The following slide illustrates how the journey of moving from a functional based organization towards becoming a process-based business would lead us to Business Service Management (BSM) and Business Process Management (BPM) N T P

  41. Business Capability Model (Financial Business) Business & Resource Administration New Business Development Customer Management Customer Sales & Servicing ProductService Delivery Distribution & Operations Services Business Portfolio Management Financial Management Planning Business & Resource Planning Segment Analysis & Planning Customer Portfolio & Analysis Customer Sales & Servicing Planning ProductService Delivery Planning Operations Services Planning Asset & Liability Policy & Planning Financial Policy & Planning Business Policies & Procedures Acquisition Planning Credit Policy & Planning External Relations Control Business Performance Management ProductService Oversight Customer Behavior & Models Sales/ Service Administration ProductService Delivery Oversight Operations Services Oversight Risk/Portfolio Management Financial Control Business Unit Tracking Campaign Management Relationship Oversight Case & Exception Handling Fraud/AML Detection Reconciliations Audit/Assur- ance/Legal/ Compliance Credit Control Action Business Unit Administration ProductService Development & Deployment Credit Administration Sales & Advisory Services Customer Supplies Management Consolidated Book/Position Maintenance Treasury Services Customer Agreement Management Human Resource Management Market Research Customer Relationship Management Teller Services Cash Distribution Securitization/ Syndication Financials Consolidation Account Products Services IT Development & Maintenance ProductService Catalogue Services Collections & Recovery Netbanking & Self Service Services Market Information Distribution Inter-bank Account Management Accounting Services Cash Management Services Procurement Marketing Customer Information Management Contactl Centre Services Correspon- dence Payroll Administration Trade & Project finance Facilities Operation & Maintenance Campaign Execution Event History Document Management & Archive Cards IT Operations and Support Authorizations & Authentications Mass Printing & Distribution Non-account based Loans