BGS History A2 Revision Tests Sino-Soviet Relations
1) Who was Mao Zedong? Leader of China after Communist revolution in 1949
2) Why was the relationship between Stalin & Mao “not an easy one”? Stalin had initially seen the Nationalists (Guomindang) as a better barricade against the Japanese expansion
3) What were the terms of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of 1950? (5) • Formal alliance between the 2 countries • Economic aid for China • Soviet military assistance in case of attack from Japan & USA • Military aid to help China develop its air force • Soviet promise to restore Chinese sovereignty over Manchuria
4) For what 2 reasons did the Sino-Soviet Split occur? • Ideological Differences • National Interests
5) Pick one of these reasons- and give 4 reasons why it cause the split (4) • NATIONAL INTERESTS • Arguments arose over USSR’s refusal to reduce its ties with mongolia • USSR blocked China’s request to expand its control in North Korea • Border disputes couldn’t be ignored- Soviet army division doubled between 1967-1970 • Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 had a profound effect on Chinese perceptions of USSR intervention. IDEOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES • Argued over the best way to pursue Communism- China had had to adapt it for a rural-based society • Mao felt himself as senior to Khrushchev following Stalin’s death • Mao criticise Khrushchev’s pursuit of better relations with the USA. • Khrushchev’s policy of ‘Destalinisation’ was not received favourably in China • Khrushchev’s reconciliation with Tito did not please Mao- saw it as revisionism
6) What event demonstrated the border tensions? The Ussuri River Dispute
7) What was the “geopolitical” interpretation of Rapprochement? Chinese security interests could not be adequately protected by sustaining its hostility to the USA and its deterioriating relationship with the USSR
8) What must also be considered? IDEOLOGY- Mao saw the USSR as representing “social imperialism” due to its ‘reactionary’ attitude. This was considered the greater threat.
9) What obstacles prevented Rapprochement? (4) • US Support for Taiwan • The military situation in Vietnam • Korea • Dealing with the emerging world power of Japan
10) What event led to Rapprochement? • The World Table Tennis Championships- “Ping Pong” Diplomacy!
11) What events followed this? (3) • Trade & Travel restrictions were relaxed • Kissinger, Nixon and Ford all visited China. • USA toned down its Far East Foreign Policy
12) What were the consequences of Rapprochement? (4) • Caused tension between China and their allies • Restored Mao’s standing in China • Embarrassed and undermined the USSR • USA used this link to gain concessions from the USSR- brought them to the negotiating table.