STANDARD 11 • SSWH11 Students will investigate political and social changes in Japan and in China from the seventeenth century CE to mid-nineteenth century CE.
a. Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rulers; include Oda Nobunaga and Kangxi. b. Analyze the impact of population growth and its impact on the social structure of Japan and China.
TEST FOUR NOTES9/16/13EQ – What changes did the Qing Dynasty bring to China?
CHINA By 1600, the Ming dynasty had ruled for more than 200 years and the dynasty was weakening. Ineffective rulers, corrupt officials, and a government that was out of money
Northeast of the Great Wall lay Manchuria. In 1644, the Manchus, a people from that region, invaded China and the Ming officially collapsed. Just as the Mongols had done in the 1300s, the Manchu’s took a Chinese name and became known as the Qing (chihng) dynasty.
Many resisted the rule of the non-Chinese rulers. Rebellions flared up for decades but slowly they began to earn respect. They upheld Confucian beliefs and social structures.
They made the frontiers safe and restored the countries prosperity. Two Manchu rulers greatly contributed to the acceptance of the new dynasty.
Kangxi (kahng-shee) • Kangxi ruled for 60 years and during that time reduced government expenses and lowered taxes. He was also a patron of the arts and gained respect of many intellectuals by offering them government positions.
He also liked to have Jesuits on his court so they could discuss the latest changes in science, medicine and mathematics in Europe. Under the rule of his grandson, Qian-long, China reached its greatest size and prosperity.
Kangxi worked on the countries problems which included armed nomads on the border and expanding the presence of European merchants and missionaries in China.
That is until 1793 when the emperor let an ambassador from England come to China.
The ambassador brought many gifts such as clocks, globes and musical instruments but the emperor was not interested.
The reason China could reject these offers from the West was largely due to the fact that they were self sufficient In the 11th century, the Chinese had acquired a fast growing strand of rice from SW Asia.
Spanish and Portuguese traders brought maize, sweet potatoes and peanuts that increased the productivity of the land. China also had extensive mining and manufacturing industries.
The only port the Chinese allowed foreigners to do trade in for years was the city ofGuangzhou (gwahng-joh). The balance of trade in this port was in China’s favor.
European merchants were determined to find a product the Chinese would do business with. They eventually found one in opium. That led to the Opium War.
1. Study Guide Rev – Test 3 tomorrow!!2. Terms Rev – Chap 16 & 17
Japanese Leaders • In the 1300s, the unity that had been achieved in Japan broke down. Shoguns, or military leaders, fought each other in the north and south for control.
After civil war in 1467, Japan’s feudal system was in shambles. At this time, power shifted over to territorial lords. From 1467-1568, Japan was in a period known as the “Warring States” period.
Powerful samurai would gain control of old feudal estates and offer protection to peasants in return for their loyalty. These warrior chieftains called daimyo became lords in a new type of feudalism.
Oda Nobunaga • Oda Nobunaga was a major daimyo during the Sengoku period of Japanese history. He was a minor warlord who lived a life of continuous military conquest to eventually conquer most of Japan.
use of long pikes, firearms, ironclad ships, and castle fortifications. a specialized warrior class system appointed to positions based on ability, not wholly based on name, rank, or family relationship like prior historical periods.
Nobunaga's dominance and brilliance was not restricted only to the battlefield for he also was a keen businessman and understood the principles of economics.
Roads were made between towns to assist tradeand move armies great distances in a hurry. International trade was also expanded beyond China and the Korean peninsula to Europe while namban (barbarian) trade with the Philippines, Siam, and Indonesia was also started.
Nobunaga also instituted rakuichirakuza policies as a way to stimulate business and the overall economy. These policies abolished and prohibited monopolies and allowed anyone to join the guild of their choice.
Oda Nobunaga developed tax exemptions and established laws to regulate and ease the borrowing of debt.
As Nobunaga conquered Japan he built a great wealthsupported the arts, more importantly used as a display of his power and prestige.
built extensive gardens and castles. Azuchicastle on the shores of lake Biwa - the greatest castle in the history of Japan, covered with gold and statues on the outside and decorated wall and ceiling paintings made by Kano Eitoku
Nobunaga is remembered in Japan as being brutal.Christianity used this as the moral basis for his persecution of the Ikkomonks (Buddhists).
One of his subjects established Japanese tea ceremony popularized and used originally as a way to talk politics and business.
Tokugawa • In 1600 Tokugawa defeated his rivals at the Battle of Sekigahara. This gained him the respect of other daimyo in Japan. Three years later he became the sole leader of Japan.
He moved the capital to the fishing city of Edo - (Tokyo). Tokugawa tamed the other daimyo by having an “alternate attendance policy”.
The leader of each region would have to spend one year in the capital and then they could return to their land. However, when they returned to their land, their family moved to the capital for that year. This policy was a major step towards restoring centralized power in Japan. As a result, the rule of law overcame the rule of the sword.
a. Describe the geographical extent of the Ottoman Empire during the rule of Suleyman the Magnificent, the Safavid Empire during the reign of Shah Abbas I, and the Mughal Empire during the reigns of Babur and Akbar.
b. Explain the ways in which these Muslim empires influenced religion, law, and the arts in their parts of the world.
STANDARD 12 • SSWH12 The student will examine the origins and contributions of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires.
Suleyman the Magnificent • Suleyman came to power in 1520 and ruled for 46 years. Suleyman was a great military leader who captured the European city of Belgrade in 1521. • Serbia
The next year, Turkish forces captured the island of Rhodes in the Mediterranean Sea giving them domination over the eastern Mediterranean. Using their massive naval forces, the Ottomans captured the city of Tripoli on the north African coast.
They continued to conquer people along the coastlines of North Africa which was very important. Although they never went into the interior parts of Africa, they were still able to control all trade routes that went from the coast into the interior parts of Africa.