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Cloning

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  1. Cloning Course: Bioinformatics Presented by: Adil Hussain - 0612120

  2. Cloning • Creating an exact organism • Naturally • Artificially • Process • Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer • Artificial Embryo Twinning • The Roslin Technique

  3. DNA in a Cell

  4. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer • Somatic Cell • Any cell of the body except sperm or egg • Nucleus • Brain of the cell PROCESS

  5. Artificial Embryo Twinning • Simple cloning process • Copies the natural process • Naturally identical twins • Artificial twins PROCESS

  6. The Roslin Technique • Roslin Institute • Variation of the Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer • PROCESS • Somatic cells (nuclei intact) to grow & divide • Inactive state • Fused with egg cell (without nucleus) • Grow into embryo • Implanted in surrogate mother

  7. Cloning for CS students • Complicated procedure • Problems • Multiplication of cells • Embryos not developing • Abnormalities in embryos • DNA controls cell transformation • 30,000 DNA in a single cell

  8. Dolly (the cloned sheep) • 5th July 1996 – 14th February 2003 • First mammal to be created from an adult somatic cell • 1/277 attempts made Dolly

  9. Process of cloning Dolly

  10. Cloning in Pakistan • Pakistan is an agricultural country • Biotechnology to improve crops • SUGARCANE – 5th largest producer • 458 mounds per acre • 800-1000 mounds per acre • Diseases reduced production 10% – 77%

  11. Cloning in Pakistan • AGRIBIOTECH • Plants are vigorous, healthy, disease free and of a premium quality. • Yield increases from 50% – 100% • Sugar recovery increase by 1 - 2 % • Reduces the seed requirement to one third • Reduce lodging which will also decrease the infestation of insects and pests. • Lower production cost due to high sugar and cane yield per unit area. • Vigorous growth and development results greater disease resistance. • Availability of high quality vigorous and disease free seed at affordable price round the year. • Every bud sprouts at least thrice

  12. Role of Bioinformatics • In Cloning • Ensuring integrity • Matching DNA • Extent of mutations

  13. Conclusion • Successful cloning is very difficult • Very low success rate • Stem cell research • Diseases (gene therapy) • Abnormalities • Gene Therapy • Gene screening to identify defective gene • Normal gene to correct it • Organ Transplant • Human reproductive cloning

  14. Questions? Thank You