The Tang Dynasty618–907 • Statecraft: Era of Zhenguan 627-649 (continuity from Kaihuang Era in the previous Sui Dynasty ) • Its relation to neighbors (as opposed to the Song Dynasty 581-600) • Peace and Prosperity • The An-Shi Rebellion • Wu Zetian, the only Empress in China (Di Renjie, Chinese Sherlock Holmes; • Tang Poetry (Li Bai or Li Bo & Du Fu)
The Li Family • founded by the Li (李) family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire. • The dynasty was interrupted briefly by the Second Zhou Dynasty (690–705) when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, becoming the first and only Chinese empress regnant 统治的, ruling in her own right. • The An-Shi Rebellion (755-763) marks the turning point when the Tang dynasty started declining. • Comparable to the Han dynasty in terms of the open door policy; both dynasties are prosperous.
Three Consequential Emperors • Taizong Li Shimin (reign 626 – 649) • Empress Wu Zetian (r. 690-705) • Xuanzong Li Longji (r. 712-756) • (the An-Shi Rebellion 775-763)
Emperor Taizong's reign was regarded as the exemplary model against which all other emperors were measured, and his "Reign of Zhenguan" (Simplified Chinese 贞观之治/ Traditional Chinese 貞觀之治) was considered a golden age of Chinese history and required study for future crown princes. Emperor Taizong of TangLi Shimin 李世民 (reign 626– 649)r. for reign 执政
The crown prince Li Jiancheng 李建成 and Li Shimin’s 4th younger brother Li Yuanji 李元吉 committed adultery with their father’s favorite consorts/concubines Zhang Jieyu & Yin Defei Because of Li Shimin's contributions, at various times, Emperor Gaozu (Li Yuan) considered replacing Li Jiancheng with him, but eventually did not, as Li Jiancheng was supported by Li Yuanji and Emperor Gaozu's favorite concubines. At the funeral service for Princess Ping Yang, when Li Shimin barely took a little sip of wine, a flying swallow left its dropping into his cup, and smeared his clothes. Li went to change clothes. All of a sudden, he felt sharp pains in his stomach… On July 2nd 626, Li Shimin slaughtered his two brothers The Palace Coup at the Xuanwu Gate玄武门之变 xuánwǔmén zhībiàn 76
Locke on Political Legitimacy • John Locke: consent of the governed confers political legitimacy. • Group Project: Review of Literature on political legitimacy—different perspectives and theories
Li Shimin’s “Reign of Zhenguan”贞观之治 (626-649) • Li Shimin proved to be an energetic and competent ruler. He regularized the administrative system of six ministries that the Sui had initiated and set up a separate bu'reaucracy to monitor the imperial household spending. He pursued a series of successful military campaigns that added or regained territory in Korea and Vietnam and extended Tang power far into Central Asia along the Silk Road. His capital, called Chang’an and located at the modern site of Xiꞌan, had a population of two million people and was the largest city in the world.
“民，水也；君，舟也。水能载舟，亦能覆舟。 A monarch to his subjects is as water to a boat; Water can carry a boat; it can also capsize it. The mandate of heaven = the mandate of people Though Li Shimin had a bloody start, he turned out to be a great emperor Legitimacy: Crown prince Jiancheng 李建成 is not qualified; Li Shimin later earned respect from his subjects; Consequentialism? Li Shimin’s Quotation“On Government”
Famous paintingInternal Frames (Contrast) • Emperor Taizong Li Shimin (r. 626-649) receives Ludongzan, 禄东赞 ambassador of Tibet, at his court; painted in 641 AD by Yan Liben 阎立本 (600-673) • 唐太宗接见吐蕃使者 • Songtsän Gampo’s marriage
A Soldier and His HorseContrast in Proportion • A bas-relief 浅浮雕/ 低浮雕(relief sculpture in which the figures project slightly from the background) of a soldier and horse with elaborate saddle and stirrups, from the tomb of Emperor Taizong, c. 650.
(605 or 617? - 649) was the founder of the Tibetan Empire (Tibetan: Bod; Chinese: 吐蕃, Tubo/Tufan), by tradition held to be the thirty-third ruler in his dynasty. Songtsän Gampo松赞干布
One marriage is equal to 100,000 elite troops; Generous dowry Chinese civilization was introduced to Tibet; Princess Wencheng 文成公主 Political Significance
In 641, Li Shimin sent Princess Wenchen to Tibet Potala Palace 布达拉宫 (in Tibet) was built for Princess Wencheng http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=potala%20palace Princess Wencheng文成公主 (623—680）
Or the Second Zhou Dynasty (690–705) Palace Examination 殿试【diànshì】 final imperial examination (presided over by the emperor) was pioneered by Wu Zetian Wu Zetian（624－705）垂帘听政holding court from behind a screen/curtain
Judge Di Renjie 狄仁杰630-700 • Nicknamed as Chinese Sherlock Holmes福尔摩斯, twice serving as chancellor during Wu Zetian’s reign. He was one of the most celebrated officials of Wu Zetian's reign • Amazing Detective Di Renjie, TV series
Sherlock Holms歇洛克·福尔摩斯 • Sherlock Holmes ( /ˈʃɜrlɒkˈhoʊmz/)is a fictional detective created by Scottish author and physician Sir Arthur Conan Doyle阿瑟·柯南·道尔. A brilliant London-based "consulting detective", Holmes is famous for his astute logical reasoning, his ability to take almost any disguise, and his use of forensic science skills to solve difficult cases. • Dr. Henry Lee from Taiwan
Dr. Henry Lee 李昌鈺 • a Chinese-born American forensic scientist. He is one of the world‘s foremost forensic scientists 刑事鉴识专家 and founder of the Henry C. Lee Institute of Forensic Science.
Arthur Conan Doyle1859 – 1930Sherlock Holmes (right) and Dr. Watson, by Sidney Paget
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang, Li Longji唐玄宗李隆基（685－762） • Emperor Xuanzong of Tang wearing the robes and the hat of a scholar
Famous Painting • A Man Herding Horses, by Han Gan (706-783), a court artist under Xuanzong • Everything is well fed in the Tang dynasty! • A different set of criteria in judging beauties. • Plumpness 丰满 is preferred.
Promotion of Daoism Reclaim the territories in the west Hire the right persons except his employment of An Lushan and Yang Guozhong; Xuanzong’s Accomplishments
Four Ancient BeautiesXi Shi/Wang Zhaojun/Dao Chan/Yang Yuhuan
Xi Shi: “Sinking the fish”in the Spring & Autumn Period • King Fuchai of the Wu State (495–473 BC) in 494 BCE defeated King Goujian of Yue; • To win trust, Goujian, then in captivity as hostage with his chancellor Fan Li, tasted King Fuchai’s! excrement 排泄物 • Fan Li’s three strategies: • 1. Have garrison troops grow grains; • 2. station troops; • 3. dispatch pretty girls to King Fuchai of Wu;
54 BCE A political marriage between Han and Hun; Wang refused to bribe the court painter Mao Yanshou 毛延寿; Emperor Yuan of Han had the painter Mao Yanshou executed; Geese forgot to flip their wings upon seeing such a beauty! Wang Zhaojunor Wang Qiang (the Han dynasty)
Diao Chan (Three Kingdoms)eclipsed the moon! 苏式彩绘The Long Corridor at the Summer Palace
杨贵妃，杨玉环 （719－756) Emperor Xuanzong’s favorite concubine who influenced/distractred him a great deal; Associated with the An Lushan Rebellion The precious lady’s elder brother Yang Guozhong became the chancellor! “Precious Lady” Yang YuhuanEmbarrassed the flowers!
Li Po or Li Bai (701 – 762); his poems represent the Peak of Romanticism; Praised for spontaneousness or spontaneity In 742, his candidacy got cancelled; Yang Guozhong as the chief examiner 主考官grinding ink 国忠研墨； Gao Lishi as the chief proctor 监考官 took off his shoes 高力士（684—762）脱靴 Li Po, a Tang Poet
Huaqing Pool is located at the foot of north Lishan Hill in Lintong, leaning against Wei River in the north and about 30 kilometers from the city of Xi'an, and enjoys quite favorable geographical location boasting green mountains and blue water. Huaqing Pool, A Hot Spring
Huaqing Hot Spring has been the site of a famous imperial bathing pool and various palace complexes over its 3,000 year history. It is a National Cultural Relic and one of China’s Hundred Famous Gardens. Huaqing (Hua means brilliant, Chinese or flowery; qing means pure or clear) Huaqing Hot Spring
An Lushan’s father was possibly a Hun, and his mother belongs to the Tujue ethnic group/Turk; He knows multiple languages His constant conflict with Yang Guozhong An Lushan declared himself as emperor in the north; Shi Siming An Lushan finally got a direct access to the Precious Lady, calling her mother; A power struggle between An Lushan and Yang Guozhong, Precious Lady’s elder brother and Li Linfu, the prime minister An-Shi Rebellion(755-763)
唐三彩【tángsāncǎi】 <archaeology> tri-colored glazed pottery of the Tang Dynasty. • Tang statue of a civil official dressed in Hanfu, made of sancai glazed earthenware; he wears a tall hat, wide-sleeved outer garment tied at the waist with a wide belt, and rectangular "kerchief" in front. A white inner gown hangs over his square shoes. He holds a tablet to his chest, preparing to provide a report to his superiors.
Tang’s artworks • A Tang period gilt-silver jar, shaped in the style of northern nomad's leather bag decorated with a horse dancing with a cup of wine in its mouth, as the horses of Emperor Xuanzong were trained to do.
琵琶【pípa】 pipa • A five-stringed pipa (wuxian) from the Tang Dynasty, • 琵琶【pípa】 pipa, a plucked string instrument with a fretted fingerboard or fretboard.
唐三彩【tángsāncǎi】 <archaeology> tri-coloured glazed pottery of the Tang Dynasty. • A Tang Dynasty tri-color glazed figurine of a horse
大雁塔 Dàyàn Tǎ • The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Chang'an (modern-day Xi'an. Built in 652, repaired by Empress Wu Zetian in 704.) • Successful candidates’ names will be posted after the imperial examinations; • The number one scholar could marry the emperor’s daughter!
A New Aesthetic Standard • 仕女图【shìnǚtú】 <painting> traditional Chinese painting of beautiful women. • In Tang painting, these women figures are no longer depicted as slim or slender; • Instead, they look plump! • Tang Dynasty represents the peak in Chinese civilization in many ways;
Zhang Xuan & Zhou Fang唐·张萱、周昉《唐宫仕女图》
Tang Poet representing the peak of realism in depicting the reality His life, like the whole country, was devastated by the An Lushan Rebellion of 755, and his last 15 years were a time of almost constant unrest. “poet sage" (詩聖 shī shèng), a counterpart to the philosophical sage, Confucius. Du Fu standardized the regulated Tang Poetry. Du Fu (712–770) With his Moral Engagement
Pentasyllabic Regulated Verse161-180 by Zong-Qi Cai • Introduction to Chinese Poetry • Chapters on the Tang poetry • Since Chinese is a tonal language, the tang poetry seems to be the best. • In English poetry, 90% is written in iambic pentameter 五步抑扬格-- An iambic foot is an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. The rhythm can be written as: da DUM • Scansion韵律分析; 按韵律诵读 : × / × / × / × / × / • To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells