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CYANOBACTERIA

CYANOBACTERIA

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CYANOBACTERIA

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  1. CYANOBACTERIA • CIRI-CIRI UMUM: • -Tipe sel: sel Prokariotik (sama dengan bakteri) • -Uniseluler dan Multiseluler • -Memiliki pigmen fikosianin • -Klorofil tidak di dalam kloroplas, tetapi tersebar di seluruh sitoplasma • HABITAT • -Perairan (terutama perairan tawar) dan tempat-tempat lembab. • -Mampu hidup pada perairan dengan suhu sampai 85 derajat C (sumber air panas) sehingga Ganggang Biru merupakan salah satu vegetasi perintis.

  2. 1. Alga biru uniseluler- Chroococcus -> hidup di air/kolam yang tenang- Gloeocapsa -> hidup pada batu atau epifit pada tumbuhan lain 2. Alga biru uniseluler berkoloni- Polycistis- Spirulina -> dapat diolah menjadi makanankesehatan (food suplement) 3. Alga biru berbentuk benang- Oscillatoria- Nostoc commune- anabaena azollae dan anabaena cycadae bersimbiosis denganAzolla pinnata dan Cycas rumphii. Simbiosis Anabaena azollae dengan Azolla pinnata sebagai alternatif pupuk Urea, karena simbiosis ini dapat meningkatkan kadar Nitrogen di lahan persawahan.

  3. Cyanobacteria Figure 16.13x

  4. These bacteria photosynthesize in a plant-like way • They often “bloom” in polluted water Figure 16.13A, B

  5. Kingdom MONERADivision EUBACTERIACYANOBACTERIA - the ‘Blue-Green Algae’

  6. Some Characteristics of the Cyanobacteria • Contain Chlorophyll-a and carotenoids, plus the phycobilins (proteinaceous photosynthetic pigments) phycocyanin and phycoerythrin found in thylakoids • Have cell walls of peptidoglycan • The carbohydrate stored is glycogen • Don’t have flagella • Some fix nitrogen in specialized cells called heterocysts

  7. Gelatinous matrix Individual cells Gloeocapsa Filaments of Nostoc commune

  8. Symbiotic Associations of Cyanobacteria * Anaboena azollae in leaves of the water fern Azolla * Nostoc in apogeotropic roots of Zamia * Nostoc and other genera in some lichens * Nostoc in leaves of some tropical angiosperms * Richelia in some pennate diatoms * Nostoc in Anthoceros (Hornworts) * Gloeocapsa in polar bear hairs * “Cyanelles” in protozoans (Glaucophytes) - cyanobacteria enclosed in vacuoles, and acting like chloroplasts

  9. Cyanelles (endosymbiotic cyanobacteria) in the ‘glaucophyte’ Glaucocystis

  10. Heterocysts In Anaboena, the heterocysts are intercalary Oscillatoria lacks heterocysts In Rivularia, the heterocysts are basal

  11. Akinetes Heterocyst Akinete Cylindrospermum Anabaena

  12. Cell and Filament Division in Cyanophyta Cell Division in Anaboena Hormogonium Formation in Oscillatoria

  13. False Branching in Cyanophyta In Tolypothrix, false branching occurs adjacent to the heterocyst Scytonema

  14. Geological Activities of Cyanobacteria Travertine (calcium carbonate) precipitated by cyanobacteria in Yellowstone National Park hot springs (from Moore) Stromatolites forming on tidal flats in Western Australia (from Raven)

  15. Cyanobacteria in Agriculture The Water fern Azolla Photo- synthetic tissue Section through Azolla leaf Cavity Anaboena Rice Paddy in Malaysia Secretory hair

  16. Cyanobacteria as Food Flamingoes feeding on Spirulina in alkaline Lake Nakuru, Kenya * Spirulina contains 70% its dry weight as protein * used Spirulina as food (Single cell Protein)