Services Chapter 12
Types and Origins of Services • Types of services • Consumer services (retail and personal services) • Business services (producer and transportation) • Public services (government employees) • Changes in number of employees • Growth in services and declines in primary/secondary • Origin of services- no one know precise origination • Services in rural settlements • Clustered rural settlements (Houses, schools, churches) • Dispersed rural settlements (Spread out cities)
Rural Settlement Patterns Fig. 12-4: Circular settlement patterns are common in Germany. Linear “long lot” patterns are often found along rivers in France, and were transferred to Québec.
Distribution of Consumer Services • Central place theory- market place • Market area of a service • Nodal regions • Hexagon best fits an area • Size of market area • Range is the distance people are willing to travel for a service • Modified to minutes instead of miles • Threshold • Number of customers needed to make a profit • Census helps determine this data
Distribution of Consumer Services • Market area analysis • Profitability of a location • Range + Threshold= profitability • Optimal location within a market • Best location is one that minimizes distance to the largest number of consumers • Hierarchy of services and settlements • Nesting of services and settlements • Market, hamlet, township center, county seat, district city, small state capital, and regional capital city • Rank-size distribution of settlements • Rank of cities based on a city’s population
Supermarket and Convenience Store Market Areas Fig. 12-8: Market area, range, and threshold for Kroger supermarkets (left) and UDF convenience stores in Dayton, Ohio. Supermarkets have much larger areas and ranges than convenience stores.
Business Services and Settlements • World cities • Ancient world cities- Ur, Athens, Rome • Medieval world cities- Feudalism, large walled cities • Modern world cities- Center of services world wide • Hierarchy of business services • World cities-London, New York and Tokyo • Centers of financial, law and advertising • Command and control centers- Atlanta, Boston, Seattle • Headquarters, medical centers • Specialized producer-service centers- Detroit, Albany • Highly skilled services • Dependent centers- Resort, Manufacturing, Industrial, Mining • Unskilled jobs; depends on world cities for economic decisions
Paris Fig. 12-13: Paris was originally surrounded by walls which were expanded to include new neighborhoods as the city grew.
Clustering of Services • Central business district (CBD) • Retail services in the CBD • Recent years has transitioned to offices instead of retail • High land costs in the CBD • Tokyo 1,000,000,000 per acre of land • Activities excluded from the CBD • Manufacturing, residential neighborhoods • Suburbanization of businesses • Suburbanization of retailing • Planned suburban shopping malls • Suburbanization of factories and offices • Cheap land and labor, close to residential neighborhoods