Georgia and the American Experience. Chapter 9: 1866-1889 Reconstruction and the New South Study Presentation. Section 1: Lincoln and Reconstruction Section 2: Reconstruction in Georgia Section 3: Georgia’s Redemption Years Section 4: The New South. Section 1: Lincoln and Reconstruction.
Chapter 9: 1866-1889 Reconstruction and the New South Study Presentation
Section 1: Lincoln and Reconstruction Section 2: Reconstruction in Georgia Section 3: Georgia’s Redemption Years Section 4: The New South
Section 1: Lincoln and Reconstruction ESSENTIAL QUESTION What were Lincoln’s plans for rebuilding the South after the Civil War?
Section 1: Lincoln and Reconstruction What words do I need to know? freedmen Freedmen’s Bureau Reconstruction disfranchise Thirteenth Amendment Nullify assassinated
Section 1: Lincoln and Reconstruction What people do I need to know? Abraham Lincoln John Wilkes Booth Andrew Johnson
Conditions in Georgia at the end of the war: farms were in ruins homes, railways, bridges,roads were destroyed or in need of repair not enough food banks were closed – Confederate money was worthless the state owed $20,000,000 in war debt 25,000 Georgians had died of wounds or disease – many more were crippled and could not work
The Freedmen Problems of freedmen (former slaves): homeless hungry uneducated free for the 1st time no property or goods Many former slaves feared re-enslavement Most whites had difficulty treating freeman as free persons
The Freedmen’s Bureau Started as the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands by U.S. government in 1865 Its job was to help freed slaves and poor whites with basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter The purpose shifted to education Set up 4,000 primary schools Started industrial schools for jobs training Started teacher-training schools Missionaries started schools like Atlanta University, Morehouse College, and Clark College
Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Lincoln wanted to rebuild and return the south to the Union as soon as possible “Reconstruction” would have two parts: Southerners would be pardoned after taking an oath of allegiance; When 10% of voters had taken the oath, the state could rejoin the Union and form a state government. Lincoln was assassinated in April 1865 during a play at Ford’s Theater by actor John Wilkes Booth. Vice President Andrew Johnson took over as President.
Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Lincoln’s plan to reconstruct the south was challenged. Some northerners called “Radical Republicans” thought the south should be more severely punished. The Radical Republicans wanted to make sure the freedmen retained their new rights. Confederate President Jefferson Davis was captured and imprisoned.
Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan In addition to Lincoln’s requirements, President Johnson added a few more. Southern states had to: approve (ratify) the 13th Amendment (outlawing slavery); nullify their ordinances of secession; promise not to repay money borrowed during the war. Click to return to the Table of Contents
Section 2: Reconstruction in Georgia ESSENTIAL QUESTION What changes occurred in Georgia during Reconstruction?
Section 2: Reconstruction in Georgia What words do I need to know? provisional discrimination Black Codes Fourteenth Amendment carpetbagger scalawag Ku Klux Klan
Section 2: Reconstruction in Georgia What words do I need to know? suffrage Georgia Act Fifteenth Amendment impeach sharecropping credit tenant farming
Section 2: Reconstruction in Georgia What people do I need to know? James Johnson General John Pope Henry McNeal Turner
The Constitutional Convention of 1865 President Johnson appointed James Johnson as Georgia’s provisional Governor. Governor Johnson held a Constitutional Convention. The representatives voted to abolish slavery and repeal the ordinance of secession. Elections were held in November 1865 for a new legislature. The General Assembly voted to extend rights to freedmen.
Black Codes Black Codes were laws passed to keep freedmen from having the same rights as whites. Didn’t allow blacks: the same jobs as whites, the right to vote, the right to marry a white person, jury service, or the right to testify. Blacks could be: whipped as punishment, forced to work from sunrise to sunset six days per week, or put in jail if they didn’t have a job.
Congressional Reconstruction Congress was angry about Georgia’s Black Codes, so it passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866. This law gave: citizenship to all freedmen; the federal government power to intervene any time civil rights were taken from freedmen. The 14th Amendment was passed granting citizenship to freedmen and required “equal protection under the law.”
Congressional Reconstruction Congress required southern states to ratify the 14th Amendment. Georgia and most of the other southern states refused. Congress abolished these states’ governments and put them under military rule. Georgia was ruled by General John Pope. Pope was required to register all male voters – black and white. These voters would elect new representatives to form a new state government.
Constitutional Convention of 1867 Georgia male voters elected delegates to the convention to create a new state constitution. Delegates were carpetbaggers (northerners who had moved south), scalawags (southerners who sided with the Republicans), and blacks. Accomplishments of the Convention: A new constitution ensuring civil rights for all citizens; Free public education for all children; Women were allowed to control their own property. Georgia had satisfied Congress, so General Pope and his troops left the state.
African Americans in Politics The election of 1867 was the first time African Americans had voted. Several African Americans were elected to Georgia’s General Assembly. Rev. Henry McNeal Turner was one of the first black men elected in Georgia. The African Americans elected to the General Assembly were expelled in 1868. It was argued by whites that civil rights laws gave blacks the right to vote but not to be elected.
Ku Klux Klan Secret organization – originally started as a social club for men returning from the war. Members hid behind robes and masks. The group terrorized blacks to keep them from voting. As a result, Congress passed “The Georgia Act” and sent troops back to Georgia. The act required Georgia to pass the 15th Amendment giving all males the right to vote.
Economic Reconstruction Without slaves, landowners needed laborers to work their large farms. Two systems emerged: tenant farming and sharecropping. Cotton was Georgia’s most important crop. Continuous growing of tobacco and cotton ruined the soil on many farms. Railroads expanded across the state. Savannah and Brunswick became important shipping ports. Atlanta began its growth into an important business center.
Tenant Farming and Sharecropping
The End of Reconstruction The African Americans who had been expelled from the General Assembly in 1868 were readmitted by the Georgia Supreme Court in 1870. The Assembly approved the 14th and 15th Amendments. Georgia was readmitted to the Union, again, ending Reconstruction. Click to return to the Table of Contents
Section 3: Georgia’s Redemption Years ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did Georgians work to improve their state after Reconstruction?
Section 3: Georgia’s Redemption Years What words do I need to know? redemption white supremacy Bourbon Triumvirate ally temperance convict lease system
Section 3: Georgia’s Redemption Years What people do I need to know? Joseph E. Brown Alfred H. Colquitt John B. Gordon Rebecca Latimer Felton Tom Watson Leo Frank
The Bourbon Triumvirate Democrats controlled Georgia’s government after Reconstruction. Powerful Democratic leaders, known as the “Bourbon Triumvirate” were Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon. Their goals were: expand Georgia’s economy and ties with industries in the North; maintain the tradition of white supremacy.
Decline of the Bourbon Triumvirate “Independent Democrats” criticized the Bourbons for not attending to the needs of the poor or improve education and working conditions in factories. Leaders William and Rebecca Felton worked to improve conditions for poor Georgians using newspapers to highlight problems in the state. The convict lease system “rented” prisoners to companies to use as workers. It took many years for the poor conditions the prisoners endured to be brought to light and changed. Click to return to the Table of Contents
Section 4: The New South ESSENTIAL QUESTION What changes occurred to create the era of the “New South” in Georgia?
Section 4: The New South What words do I need to know? New South normal school segregation Grange Farmers’ Alliance co-op
Section 4: The New South What people do I need to know? Henry Grady Joel Chandler Harris Sidney Lanier Charles Henry Smith
The New South Era Challengers to the Bourbon Triumvirate wanted Georgia to be more industrialized. Henry Grady was a speaker and newspaper editor. Grady described Georgia as a place which could have competitive industry and more efficient farming. Grady envisioned improved race relations in a “New South” which left its antebellum past behind.
Education in the New South Era Funding to provide elementary education for all children in Georgia grew slowly from 1868-1895. Teachers were paid a little more than farm hands and had little or no training. Normal schools were started to train more teachers. The “school year” was only three months long which allowed children to work on farms or in factories. The state constitution of 1877 did not allow for school beyond 8th grade and segregated black and white students.
The Arts of the New South Era Several Georgians gained fame for their work as writers: Joel Chandler Harris’ most famous work was Uncle Remus: His Sayings and Stories; Sidney Lanier was one of the best known poets of his time; Charles Henry Smith wrote satire for newspapers in Georgia.
Agriculture in the New South Era Crop prices declined through the 1870s. The Grange and the Farmers’ Alliance started out as social groups but began to reorganize to put pressure on lawmakers to find ways to help farmers. Georgia created the first state to have a Department of Agriculture. Co-ops allowed farmers to work together to buy goods and equipment at a lower cost. Click to return to the Table of Contents