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First Aid

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First Aid

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  1. First Aid

  2. First Aid At Work Commercial Training

  3. Candidates will be able to: >State the principles and aims of first aid >State your responsibility as a first aider >State the action to take at an emergency incident >Demonstrate an awareness of safety issues Learning outcomes Being a first aider and first aid equipment

  4. Learning outcomes Resuscitation Candidates will be able to: > Briefly outline the structure and function of the respiratory and circulatory systems > State some causes of hypoxia > Outline the theory behind Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) > Demonstrate the treatment for a conscious casualty who is choking > Demonstrate the treatment for an unconscious casualty who is known to have choked

  5. Learning outcomes Management of blood loss Candidates will be able to: > State how blood is circulated around the body > State the definition of shock > State & demonstrate how to control serious external bleeding > State & demonstrate how to treat a person with internal bleeding > State & demonstrate how they would treat a casualty suffering from shock

  6. Candidates will be able to: > Explain what is meant by Mechanism of Injury > Demonstrate the correct management of a conscious casualty > Demonstrate the correct management of an unconscious casualty, to include Primary and Secondary Survey > Demonstrate how to place an acting unconscious casualty in the Recovery Position from their back, front and side and state the reasons behind your actions > Describe the after care required for all of the above Learning outcomes Unconsciousness

  7. Learning outcomes Burns Candidates will be able to: > State the causes of burns and scalds > Demonstrate the general treatment for burns & scalds > Describe the treatment for a corrosive burn to the eye

  8. Learning outcomes Fractures Candidates will be able to: > State the purpose of the skeleton > Describe what is meant by the term fracture > State the causes of fractures > State the types of fractures > Describe the signs and symptoms of a fracture > Treat fractures of different bones > Differentiate between a sprain and a strain > Outline the treatment of a sprain and a strain

  9. Learning outcomes Minor injuries & medical conditions Candidates will be able to: > Describe what is meant by the term minor illness > List the minor illnesses > Describe the signs and symptoms of some minor illnesses > Show the treatment for a minor illness

  10. Health & safety We are committed to ensuring that you enjoy your learning experience and can undertake it in a safe environment. To ensure this, it is vital that you follow the instructions given by the trainer 1. Ensure that you always act within your own limitations and advise the trainer if you are unable to undertake any practical activity 2. Ensure that you understand what is expected of you during the practical sessions and demonstrations – if in doubt ask!

  11. Health & safety • 3. When acting as a casualty it is vital that you relax, and stop the activity if, at any time, you feel you are at risk, feel any pain or discomfort • 4. Observe your colleagues when they are undertaking practical activities and stop the activity if you feel they are at risk

  12. Aims of first aid 1.Preserve life 2.Limit worsening of the condition 3.Promote recovery

  13. Assess Airway Breathing Chest Compressions Control Bleeding Aims of first aid 1.Preserve life

  14. Examination of the casualty Make diagnosis Give priority to seriously injured Treat multiple injuries in order of priority Consider possibility of secondary condition Aims of first aid 2.Limit the worsening of the condition

  15. Relieve discomfort, pain or anxiety Reassure Get medical aid Aims of first aid 3.Promote recovery

  16. Responsibilities of the first aider 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Safety Assess Diagnose Treat After Care Report

  17. External clues Signs Secondary survey History Mechanics of injury Symptoms

  18. >Wash your hands > Wear disposable gloves > Use a yellow 'clinical waste' bag for used dressings > Wear waterproof dressings over cuts and grazes > Use purpose made cleaning agents for cleaning up body fluid spillages > If you regularly deal with bodily fluids, ask your doctor about Hepatitis B vaccinations Basic hygiene

  19. > Easily identifiable waterproof box > 20 individually wrapped sterile adhesive dressings (plasters) assorted sizes > 6 medium sterile dressings > 2 large sterile dressings > 2 sterile eye pads > 6 triangular bandages > 6 safety pins > Disposable gloves First aid kit contents (HSE suggested)

  20. Unconscious, head wound - workplace

  21. Unconscious, head wound

  22. Recovery position

  23. The respiratory system

  24. Hypoxia Insufficient oxygen reaching the body tissues from the blood

  25. >Insufficient oxygen >Airway obstruction >Conditions affecting chest wall >Impaired lung function >Damage to brain or nerves that control respiration >Impaired oxygen uptake by the tissues Causes of hypoxia

  26. The circulatory system

  27. The heart – blood flow

  28. Blood vessels

  29. Chain of survival

  30. If not breathing, phone for help Give chest compressions 30:2 cycle Continue with CPR until help arrives Check for danger Check for a Response Open the airway Check for normal Breathing Resuscitation - treatment

  31. Resuscitation - children and infants • Give five initial rescue breaths before starting chest compressions…then • Continue at the ratio of 30 compressions to 2 breaths • If you are on your own perform resuscitation for about 1 minute before going for help • Compress the chest by about one-third of its depth

  32. Resuscitation - children and infants For a child over 1 year, use one or two hands, as appropriate, to compress the chest by about one third of its depth For a baby under 1 year, use two fingers to compress the chest by about one third of its depth

  33. Choking Objects may cause either mild or severe airway obstruction. It is important to ask the conscious casualty ‘Are you choking?’ General signs of choking >Attack occurs while eating >Casualty may clutch his/her neck Signs of MILD airway obstruction Response to question ‘Are you choking?’ >Casualty speaks & answers ‘yes’ Other signs> Casualty is able to speak, cough, and breathe Signs of SEVERE airway obstruction Response to question ‘Are you choking?’ >Casualty unable to speak > Casualty may respond by nodding Other signs> Casualty is unable to breathe > Breathing sounds wheezy> Attempts at coughing are silent> Casualty may be unconscious

  34. Choking - treatment 1. Encourage coughing 4. Up to 5 abdominal thrusts 2. Up to 5 back blows 3. Check Mouth 5. Check Mouth >Repeat sequence 3 times - 999/112 - Repeat sequence<

  35. Choking - treatment Assess severity Severe airway obstruction(ineffective cough) Mild airway obstruction(effective cough) Unconscious> Start CPR Conscious> 5 back blows> 5 abdominal thrusts Encourage coughContinue to check for deterioration to ineffective cough or relief of obstruction

  36. Types of wound Incised Lacerated Graze Bruise Puncture Gunshot

  37. Laceration to fingers

  38. Laceration to eye/face

  39. Amputation of fingers

  40. Puncture wound

  41. 1. Sit or lie down 2. Examine 3. Pressure 4. Elevate Treatment of bleeding

  42. Blood loss & shock - recognition > History > Pale skin > Cool and moist skin > Fast & weak pulse > Fast & shallow breathing > Nausea & vomiting > Thirsty > Anxious > Level of response drops

  43. Blood loss & shock - treatment Treat The Cause (if possible) Protection from Shock > Give reassurance > Protect from heat loss > Get medical aid > Nil by mouth > No Smoking

  44. Penetrating chest wound

  45. Severity of burns S C A L D ize ause ge ocation epth

  46. Depth of burns Superficial Partial Full

  47. Burns and scalds (when to go to hospital) > All burns involving the feet, hands, face or genital area > All burns that extend around a limb > Superficial burns above 5% > Partial thickness burns above 1% > All full thickness burns > Burns with a mixed pattern of depth > If you are unsure about the extent or severity > Children

  48. 1. Cool the burn Burns - treatment 3. Once cooled cover with a sterile dressing 2. Remove any clothing not sticking to the burn 4. Seek medical advice

  49. Do NOT: > Apply creams or lotions > Burst blisters > Place ice on the burn > Remove clothing sticking to the burn Burns - treatment

  50. Impaired consciousness is a result of an interruption of normal brain activity leading to a loss of awareness of surroundings Impaired consciousness