Outcome Mapping Bringing learning into development programmes 15-18 September 2009 Capetown South Africa Robert Chipimbi Simon Hearn
Acknowledgements • This presentation makes use of various materials that were shared by various OM community members on the OM learning community website. Without being exhaustive special thanks goes to Terry Smutylo, Enrique Mendizabal, Steff Deprez, Jan Van Ongevalle, Daniel Roduner, Kaia Ambrose and many others.
´´The only real voyage of discovery exists, not in seeing new landscapes, but in having new eyes´´ Marcel Proust
Workshop objectives • Understand basic OM concepts & principles • Decide if & how OM applies to your work • Apply some OM tools
Before we start ... Outcome Mapping is different from conventional PM&E models • It requires time to absorb the concepts and implications for your work • It might seem very complex at first (new concepts, new language, …) • Requires a change in thinking (new paradigm) • Generates different reactions • Interest • Confusion / doubt • Disagreement • Defense • Let’s go for it! • How can we ever do this? • … DON’T WORRY - ASK QUESTIONS!
origins of outcome mapping • Developed between 1998 and 2001 by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) as an answer to the difficulties faced in evaluation processes of development programs: • Demonstrating results • Proving cause/effect relationships • Measuring & attributing impact • What about unintended results? • …
Some core principles of outcome mapping • Embracing complexity • Sphere of influence • Boundary partners • Outcomes as behavioural changes
1. Embracing Complexity Looking at the bigger picture See yourself as a part of an interconnected web of relationships and systems
Constant change “It’s not possible to see the same river twice”
Recognizing that change is… • Continuous • Complex • Non-linear • Not controllable • Multidirectional
Keep your eyes wide open… Being attentive along the journey is as important as the destination
opportunities for P,M,E and learning beginning during end results, impact objectives, inputs, Activities outputs Life cycle of the program Often Dealing with social systems Non-linear process Complex relationships & interactions Unpredictable nature of human behaviour Unknown factors & actors
different approaches Logical Frame Analysis Results based Mgt changes in behaviour Life cycle of the program Impact (changes in environmental or social conditions) Objectives (activities, products)
Outputs Impact Activities Outcomes Inputs 2. Sphere of influence Sphere of interest Sphere of influence Sphere of control
Sphere of control Sphere of influence Sphere of interest Outputs Impact Activities Outcomes Inputs Relative Influence Along the Results Chain project influence decreases Influence of local actors increases Behavioural Changes
3. Focus on boundary partners • Key concept is « boundary partners » • The individuals, groups, and organizations you work with directly and anticipate opportunities for influence
An actor-centered approach to development planning and M&E • “Development is essentially about people (groups and organisations) relating to each other and their environment.” • Although a programme can influence the achievement of outcomes, it cannot control them because ultimate responsibility rests with the people affected. • “Outcome Mapping centred around programme actors and their relationship in development programmes.”
indirect influence Sphere of interest Beneficiary 2 Beneficiary 1 Beneficiary 3 direct influence Sphere of influence Boundarypartner 2 Boundary partner 1 Boundary partner 3 direct control Sphere of Control Implementing team A programme can not control change, it can only influence and contribute to changes at the level of its boundary partners
4. Outcomes as behavioural changes • Outcome mapping focuses on outcomes as changes in behaviour of those with whom the program or project is working directly (boundary partners)
Why behavioural change? • For each change in state (e.g. security of land for marginalized groups) there are always correlating changes in behaviour of certain people and groups. • Assessing changes in state – as often in logframes – not necessarily provide the kind of information that programmes need to improve their performance and relevance. • Development is done by and for people.
Principles of use • Flexibility • OM needs to be adapted to use in your specific context. • Not a fixed route but a guide for the journey we take. • Participatory • OM implies dialogue and collaboration with partners. • We co-create the ´map´ with our partners. • Evaluative thinking • Fosters a reflective practice, organisational & social learning.
principles of use Flexible: Can be adapted to use & context (Not a fixed route but a guide for the journey we take) Complementary: combine with other methods
principles of use Participatory: seeks dialogue and collaboration with partners (We co-create the ´map´ with our partners) Evaluative: promotes culture of reflection, results oriented thinking, and social & organizational learning
where is the map? • OM is a guide to the journey we take with our partners. We co-create the map. • It focuses on the intention and what happens along the way • The map is not the territory, it shows the route taken
stage 1 Intentional Design Step 1: Vision
I have a dream! Martin Luther King, Jr. August 28, 1963
The vision • Description of the universe in terms of human, social, economic or environmental conditions • Large-scale development-related changes • Describes the ideal world • Beyond program's capability • Functions as a lighthouse – something to guide movement • …and a star – something big to aim for • Written in present tense
Example vision statement • Education in Zimbabwe is reoriented towards critical thinking, action competence and responsible behaviour by individuals and groups to achieve sustainable living in a healthy environment. In this way, the Zimbabwean community is empowered to make informed individual and collaborative decisions, which ensures continual effective environmental management.
? vision facilitation questions • Imagine that, 5-10 years from now, the program has been extremely successful. Things have improved beyond your most ambitious dreams. • What changes have occurred? • What (& how) are your intended beneficiaries doing? • What are your partners doing? • Describe the better world you are seeking.
stage 1 Intentional Design Step 2: Mission
The Mission The mission is that “bite” of the vision statement on which the project is going to focus.
Mission statement Describes how the program will contribute to the Vision, including its main working areas and the partners with whom it will implement them. Written in future tense - as something the program will do
Example Mission Statement In support of this vision, St2eep will create an enabling environment for sustained EE implementation in Secondary Teachers’ Colleges through the encouragement of active learning processes which promote participation, critical thinking, informed decision-making, action competence and responsible citizenry. St2eep will conduct on-going pre- and in-service capacity enhancement, curriculum review and implementation and strive for the reorientation of assessment of teaching and learning in line with principles of Environmental Education. St2eep will lobby for motivational strategies and policies to ensure that EE is institutionalized in the education system and encourage outreach programs through networking with schools, communities and environmental interest groups. St2eep will ensure that graduates of the Secondary Teachers’ Colleges are able to implement EE in their teaching.
? Mission facilitation questions • What areas do you need to work in? • What do you need to do in these areas? • Who can you work with? • How will you stay effective, efficient, and relevant?
Summary Vision Mission • about the future • observable • idealistic • not about the program • feasible • identifies activities and relationships • about the program
stage 1 Intentional Design step 3: Boundary Partners
boundary partners Those individuals, groups, and organizations with whom the program • interacts directly to effect change • anticipates opportunities for influence • engages in mutual learning
= boundary partners SPHERE OF INTEREST SPHERE OF INFLUENCE Program
a programme….. • has direct control over its inputs, activities,... in working with the boundary partners, but • can not control change at level of its boundary partners and beneficiairies. The ultimate responsibility rest with the people affected. • hopes to have direct influence / contribute to changes at the level of its boundary partners • can only indirectly influence change at the level of ultimate beneficiaries (impact)
boundary partners have boundary partners program program’s bp bp’s bp
strategic partners • selected on the basis of their contribution to the mission • a person or group with whom the program works directly to achieve the mission, without necessarily wanting to change the partner’s behavior Other donors Other organisations doing similar work Media Examples
St2eep project 2005-2008 Beneficiaries: Colleges, Lecturers & staff, Student Teachers, Pilot schools Communities, …. Vision Mission BP2 College administrations BP1 Ministry of Higher & Tertiary Education BP3 EE Steering teams ( EE Coordinator) BP4 Dept of Teacher Education (UZ) Strategic partners Min. Of Education Min. Of Environment SADC REEP ZWEECF Universities NGO’s ... Funding Organisations VVOB SADC REEP ... BP5 Ministry of Education, S., C. Outcome Challenge 1 Outcome Challenge 2 Outcome Challenge 3 Outcome Challenge 4 Outcome Challenge 5 St2eep impl team EE coordinators and VVOB facilitators
? boundary partners facilitation questions • In which individuals, groups, or organizations is your program trying to encourage change as a contribution to the vision? • With whom will you work directly? • Are you choosing boundary partners because you want to influence the ways they help or influence others?
Boundary partner exercise • Worksheet to be supplied