Cultural Information 1. The Importance of Dialogue Cultural information1 Many philosophers and writers would like to express their philosophic ideas through the form of dialogue. And one important theorist making great contribution in clarifying the function of dialogic thinking is Mikhail Bakhtin.
Cultural Information 1) Self-other relationship — “other” plays a key role in understanding: In order to understand, it is immensely important for the person who understands to be located outside the object of his or her creative understanding — in time, in space, in culture. — Mikhail Bakhtin (from New York Review of Books, June 10, 1993) Cultural information2
Cultural Information 2) Polyphony (many voices) — single voice is not the carrier of truth: Truth is a number of mutually addressed, albeit contradictory and logically inconsistent statements. Truth needs a multitude of carrying voices. Cultural information2
Text Analysis Structural Analysis The text opens with two writers answering students’ questions about how to write in dialogue, showing sharp contrasts from various aspects. By summarizing different methods in writing, the text later on points out that even with diversity and differentiation, the common ground of any writing is the same. Many renowned philosophers and writers such as Plato and Oscar Wilde expressed their philosophic ideas in the form of dialogue where different aspects of truth were better presented. Through dialogue between people on an equal footing, we get the revelation that different, sometimes even seemingly contradictory elements, can co-exist so harmoniously within the range of one truth. Human beings have an inclination to look at the world from a self-centered Global Reading - Structural analysis
Text Analysis Structural Analysis perspective, and it will result in an illusion far from truth. Therefore, it is important for one to try his best to train his mind from an early time in his life to tolerate other people’s opinions of the world because such different understanding of life helps one better pursue the truth. Global Reading - Structural analysis
Text Analysis Structural Analysis 1) In terms of organization, the article clearly falls into two main parts: Structural analysis The first part (Paragraphs 1-17) is devoted to answers given by two writers to the students’ questions. The second part (Paragraphs 18-22) is a generalization of the essence of writing. 2) In order to deliver the sharp differences in the answers of the two writers in the first part, the author uses Short paragraphs and the repetition of “he said …” and “Then I said …” The rhetorical trick of contrast e.g. “The words just flowed. It was easy.” (Paragraph 3) vs. “It was hard and lonely, and the words seldom just flowed.” (Paragraph 4)
Text Analysis Structural Analysis Advantage of such rhetoric technique: some knowledge of different and even conflicting ideas helps one to gain greater thinking power and acquire a broader vision. Structural analysis 3) The diversity of the writing methods in the second part is expressed by the parallel use of “some …” and “others …” e.g. Some people write by day, others by night. Some people need silence, others turn on the radio. (Paragraph 18) 4) The transition paragraph from the specific examples to general discussion of the topic is Paragraph 17; The shift from the diversity to the commonality shared by all writers is realized with two words “But all” in the beginning of Paragraph 19.
Detailed Reading The Transaction William Zinsser 1 About ten years ago a school in Connecticut held “a day devoted to the arts,” and I was asked if I would come and talk about writing as a vocation. When I arrived I found that a second speaker had been invited — Dr. Brock (as I’ll call him), a surgeon who had recently begun to write and had sold some stories to national magazines. He was going to talk about writing as an avocation. That made us a panel, and we sat down to face a crowd of student newspaper editors, English teachers and parents, all eager to learn the secrets of our glamorous work. Detailed reading 1
Detailed Reading 2 Dr. Brock was dressed in a bright red jacket, looking vaguely bohemian, as authors are supposed to look, and the first question went to him. What was it like to be a writer? 3 He said it was tremendous fun. Coming home from an arduous day at the hospital, he would go straight to his yellow pad and write his tensions away.The words just flowed. It was easy. 4 I then said that writing wasn’t easy and it wasn’t fun. It was hard and lonely, and the words seldom just flowed. 5 Next Dr. Brock was asked if it was important to rewrite. “Absolutely not,” he said. “Let it all hang out, and whatever form the sentences take will reflect the writer at his most natural.” Detailed reading2-5
Detailed Reading 6 I then said that rewriting is the essence of writing. I pointed out that professional writers rewrite their sentences repeatedly and then rewrite what they have rewritten. I mentioned that E. B. White and James Thurber rewrote their pieces eight or nine times. 7 “What do you do on days when it isn’t going well?” Dr. Brock was asked. He said he just stopped writing and put the work aside for a day when it would go better. 8 I then said that the professional writer must establish a daily schedule and stick to it. I said that writing is a craft, not an art, and that the man who runs away from his craft because he lacks inspiration is fooling himself. He is also going broke. Detailed reading6-8
Detailed Reading 9 “What if you’re feeling depressed or unhappy?” a student asked. “Won’t that affect your writing?” 10 Probably it will, Dr. Brock replied. Go fishing. Take a walk. 11 Probably it won’t, I said. If your job is to write every day, you learn to do it like any other job. 12 A student asked if we found it useful to circulate in the literary world. Dr. Brock said that he was greatly enjoying his new life as a man of letters, and he told several stories of being taken to lunch by his publisher and his agent at chic Manhattan restaurants where writers and editors gather. I said that professional writers are solitary drudges who seldom see other writers. 13 “Do you put symbolism in your writing?” a student asked me. Detailed reading9-13
Detailed Reading 14 “Not if I can help it,” I replied. I have an unbroken record of missing the deeper meaning in any story, play or movie, and as for dance and mime, I have never had even a remote notion of what is being conveyed. 15 “I love symbols!” Dr. Brock exclaimed, and he described with gusto the joys of weaving them through his work. 16 So the morning went, and it was a revelation to all of us. At the end Dr. Brock told me he was enormously interested in my answers — it had never occurred to him that writing could be hard. I told him I was just as interested in his answers — it had never occurred to me that writing could be easy. (Maybe I should take up surgery on the side.) Detailed reading14-16
Detailed Reading 17 As for the students, anyone might think we left them bewildered. But in fact we probably gave them a broader glimpse of the writing process than if only one of us had talked. For of course there isn’t any “right” way to do such intensely personal work. There are all kinds of writers and all kinds of methods, and any method that helps people to say what they want to say is the right method for them. 18 Some people write by day, others by night. Some people need silence, others turn on the radio. Some write by hand, some by typewriter or word processor, some by talking into a tape recorder. Some people write their first draft in one long burst and then revise; others can’t write the second paragraph until they have fiddled endlessly with the first. Detailed reading17-18
Detailed Reading 19 But all of them are vulnerable and all of them are tense. They are driven by a compulsion to put some part of themselves on paper, and yet they don’t just write what comes naturally. They sit down to commit an act of literature, and the self who emerges on paper is a far stiffer person than the one who sat down. The problem is to find the real man or woman behind all the tension. 20 For ultimately the product that any writer has to sell is not the subject being written about, but who he or she is. I often find myself reading with interest about a topic I never thought would interest me — some unusual scientific quest, for instance. What holds me is the enthusiasm of the writer for his field. How was he drawn into it? What emotional baggage did he bring along? Detailed reading19-20
Detailed Reading How did it change his life? It’s not necessary to want to spend a year alone at Walden Pond to become deeply involved with a writer who did. 21 This is the personal transaction that’s at the heart of good nonfiction writing. Out of it come two of the most important qualities that this book will go in search of: humanity and warmth. Good writing has an aliveness that keeps the reader reading from one paragraph to the next, and it’s not a question of gimmicks to “personalize” the author. It’s a question of using the English language in a way that will achieve the greatest strength and the least clutter. 22 Can such principles be taught? Maybe not. But most of them can be learned. Detailed reading21
Detailed Reading Detailed reading1--Quesion Do you think the process of the activity is within the expectation of both the speakers and the audience? No. Due to the differences in the background of the two speakers, different views towards the topic of writing are somewhat anticipated. But the fact that their opinions should be so conflicting to each other is a surprise to both the speakers and the audience.
Detailed Reading Detailed reading17--Quesion What would be the possible response of the students as suggested by the writer? The students might have a broader glimpse of the writing process. They would realize that there might be totally different writers and methods of writing and the most effective method of writing is the one that helps the writer to say what he wants to say.
Detailed Reading Detailed reading19--Quesion What does the writer mean when he says that all of the writers are “vulnerable and tense”? “Vulnerable” refers to the quality of being sensitive to all the stimulus in life, and “tense” refers to the sharp awareness of expressing natural feelings in an artistic way.
Detailed Reading 1) What does the writer think is the very thing that makes a piece of good writing? Detailed reading21--Quesion According to the writer, it’s the existence of the personal transaction that makes a piece of good writing. The writer should devote genuine emotion in the process of writing and only thus can he arouse the expected response in his readers. 2) What does the writer mean that such principles cannot be taught but can be learned? What can be taught in writing is the writing skills, but writing skills alone cannot make a great, or even a good, piece of writing. The genuine enthusiasm for art and sincere emotion for the world, which are essential to good writing, can only be learned by heart and through one’s life experiences.
Detailed Reading Class Activity Group discussion: Do you enjoy the process of writing? Do you write with the flow of thought or based on careful planning and meditation? Share your experiences with you classmates. Impromptu writing: Use ten minutes to write whatever in your mind on a piece of paper and read this writing to the class. Detailed reading21– Activity
Detailed Reading bohemian a. Detailed reading2– bohemian having or denoting the qualities of a person with artistic or literary interests who disregards conventional standards of behavior e.g. bohemian cafes frequented by artists, musicians, and actors
Detailed Reading arduous a. Detailed reading2-- arduous involving strenuous effort, difficult and tiring e.g. After a long, hot, and arduous journey we fell asleep the moment our heads touched the pillows. The experiment was far more arduous than most of us had expected. Antonym: facile
Detailed Reading circulate v. Detailed reading1– circulate1 move around a social function to talk to different people; move continuously through a closed system or area e.g. Rumours started to circulate among the villagers about the cause of his death right after he died. Derivation: circulation (n.) e.g. This kind of stamp is no longer in circulation.
Detailed Reading symbolism n. Symbolism is an artistic and poetic movement or style using symbolic images and indirect suggestion to express mystical ideas, emotions, and states of mind. It originated in late 19th-century France and Belgium, flourished all over Europe, had great international impact, and influenced 20th-century art and literature. Detailed reading1– symbolism e.g. poetry full of religious symbolism Derivation: symbol (n.), symbolic (a.), symbolize (v.) Practice: What does this ? (symbol, symbolize) 这个符号象征着什么？ symbolize ____________
Detailed Reading bewilder v. Detailed reading2– bewilder cause sb. to become perplexed and confused e.g. He was bewildered by his daughter’s reaction. Synonym: puzzle, perplex, confound
Detailed Reading fiddle v. tinker with sth. in an attempt to make minor adjustments or improvements Detailed reading1– fiddle e.g. She sat in the car and played the radio, fiddling with the knobs. Collocations: fiddle with fiddle about / around e.g. Feeling nervous when facing the interviewer, she fiddled with the strings of her purse. e.g. Stop fiddling about and do some work.
Detailed Reading commit v. do sth. wrong or illegal Detailed reading1– commit1 e.g. It was disclosed in the media that this senior official had committed adultery with several females. Collocations: commit sb. / sth. to sth.:order sb. to be put in a hospital or prison e.g. commit a man to prison commit sb. / oneself (to sth. / to doing sth.): say that sb. will definitely do sth. or must do sth. He has committed himself to support his brother’s children. e.g.
Detailed Reading Derivation: Detailed reading1– commit2 commitment (n.): a promise to do sth. or to behave in a particular way e.g. the government's commitment to public services
Detailed Reading Coming home from an arduous day at the hospital, he would go straight to his yellow pad and write his tensions away. (Paragraph 3) Detailed reading3– Coming home from an … Paraphrase: After a whole day’s intense work at the hospital, he would get rid of his tensions through writing.
Detailed Reading “Let it all hang out, and whatever form the sentences take will reflect the writer at his most natural.” (Paragraph 5) Detailed reading5– Let it all … Paraphrase: Let the writer relax completely and the sentences he writes will show the most natural state of him.
Detailed Reading I have an unbroken record of missing the deeper meaning in any story, play or movie, and as for dance and mime, I have never had even a remote notion of what is being conveyed. (Paragraph 14) Detailed reading14– I have an … Paraphrase: I have nearly always failed to understand the hidden, implicit meaning expressed in any story, play or movie, and I do not have the slightest idea of what is being conveyed in dance and mime.
Detailed Reading Maybe I should take up surgery on the side. (Paragraph 16) Detailed reading16– Maybe I should … Paraphrase: Perhaps I should take up surgery as a hobby.
Detailed Reading Detailed reading19– They sit … They sit down to commit an act of literature (paragraph 19) Paraphrase: They sit down to do some literary writing.
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Consolidation Activities- Vocabulary main Word Derivation Phrase Practice Synonym / Antonym
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Fill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate phrasal verb or collocation from the text. Consolidation Activities-Phrase practice 1 1)Although released from prison, Duncan has an inclination to the police. _________________ run away from 2) Following the election, the Democrats were demoralized, discredited, and worst of all, . going broke ______________ 3) Ms. Blair is expected to with her many years of experience to the new post. bring along ____________ 4) The cellist told us his story of being taken to concerts and music as a child. drawn into ____________
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Consolidation Activities-Phrase practice 2 5)“No need to worry,” she comforted us with a smile. “Let it all .” ___________ hang out
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Consolidation Activities- run away from run away from:suddenly leave sb. / a place; escape from sb. / a place e.g. 他十三岁那年就离家出走了。 He ran away from home at the age of thirteen.
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing go broke:bankrupt Consolidation Activities- go broke e.g. 这个公司不会破产。 The firm will not gobroke.
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Consolidation Activities- bring along bring along:make sth. happen e.g. 我们怎么能够让（人们的）态度发生改变？ How can we bring along a change in attitudes?
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Consolidation Activities- draw into draw into: make sb. become involved in sth., especially when they do not want to be e.g. 她发现自己卷入了她两个邻居之间的争论中。 She found herself drawn into a disagreement between two of her neighbours.
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Consolidation Activities- hang out let it all hang out: (informal) relax and do what you like e.g. 别担心，做你想做的吧！ Don’t worry. Let it all hang out.
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing 1) drudgery n. → drudge n.→ drudge v. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.1 e.g. 无尽无休的﹑单调乏味的家务 给那个公司打工无异于做苦力。 他勤苦地做一些单调的工作。 the endless drudgery of housework Working for that company, I was little more than a drudge. He drudges at some monotonous work.
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing 2)circulatory a.→ circulation n. → circulate v. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.2 e.g. 心脏和循环系统 这份报纸的日销售量约55,000份。 打开窗让空气流通吧！ the heart and circulatory system The newspaper has a daily circulation of 55,000. Open a window to allow the air to circulate!
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing 3) social a. → sociable a.→ society n. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.3 我们这条街多数家庭都享受社会福利。 她从不好交际。 社会有权要违法者受到惩罚。 e.g. Most of the families in our road are on social security. She has never really been the sociable type. Society has a right to see law-breakers punished.
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing 4) mention v. → mention n. → mentionable a. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.4 e.g. 有人提起过我吗? 没提到他的贡献。 我的贡献不值一提。 Did I hear my name mentioned? There was no mention of his contribution. My contribution is not mentionable.
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing 5) resist v. → resistance n. → resistant a. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.5 e.g. 他再也抵抗不住了。 这种意见受到某种抵制。 能抵抗抗生素的一种传染病 He could resist no longer. The idea met with some resistance. an infection that’s resistant to antibiotics
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing 6) intense a. → intensive a. → intensify v. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.6 e.g. 他压力巨大。 他们用一周时间教速成英语课程。 她更加生气了。 He is under intense pressure. They teach you English in an intensive course lasting just a week. Her anger intensified.
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing 7) exclaim v. → exclamation n. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.7 e.g. 他大声说那不是事实。 他一阵惊叹。 He exclaimed that it was untrue. He gave an exclamation of surprise.
Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing 8) literature n. → literacy n.→ literary a. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.8 e.g. 18世纪英国文学 发明了印刷术后文化教育才得以普及。 巴金是一位文坛巨匠。 18th century English literature Mass literacy was only possible after the invention of printing. Ba Jin is a literary giant.