The Great War Thomas Ring & Cydney West
TERMS • Conscription • A military draft • Mobilization • Process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war (in 1914, this was considered an act of war) • Triple Alliance • Formed by Austria, Italy, and Germany in 1882. • Triple Entente • Formed by France, Great Britain, and Russia in 1907.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand • While Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife visited Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, members of The Black Hand waited for them in the streets. This Serbian terrorist group wanted Bosnia to become free from Austria-Hungary and to become part of a large Serbian Kingdom. Though the conspirators threw a bomb at the Archduke’s car, they missed and hit the car behind them. Francis Ferdinand was shot later that day by a 19 year old Bosnian Serb named Gavrilo Princip.
Austro-Hungarian government was unsure if the assassination of Francis Ferdinand was directly influenced by the Serbian government. However, the Serbian government’s involvement was unimportant- it gave the Austro-Hungarian government an opportunity to “render Serbia innocuous [harmless] once and for all by a display of force.” Austria needed the help of Germany to attack Serbia which leads us to Emperor William II.
Emperor William II • German Emperor, William II, responded to the Austrians by giving them full support even if “matters went to the length of a war between Austria-Hungary and Russia.” • An ultimatum was sent to Serbia in which there were such “extreme demands,” some had to be rejected. • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28.
Czar Nicholas II • Just as Germany supported Austria, Russia supported Serbia. July 28- Czar Nicholas II ordered partial mobilization of the Russian army. • Russian military leaders informed Nicholas that partial mobilization plans were based on a war against both Austria and Germany. • Full mobilization was ordered on July29, despite the fact that this order was considered an act of war by Germany.
Militarism • Definition: reliance on military strength • Growth of armies in Europe after 1900 increased tension in European nations. These mass armies also made it clear that war would be highly destructive. • Because conscription had become a regular practice, European armies doubled between 1890 and 1914. STATS Russia (the largest) had 1.3 million men France and Germany had 900,000 each Austria, Britain, and Italy had between 250,000 and 500,000 each Increase in military- Increase of influence of military leaders. Complex plans for mobilizing millions left little room for error. In 1914, political leaders had to make military decisions instead of political reasons.
QUESTIONS • Which ethnic groups were left without nations in Europe before 1914? • Slavic minorities in the Balkans and the Hapsburg Empire, Irish in the British Empire, and the Poles in the Russian Empire. • How did the creation of military plans help draw nations of Europe into WWI? • Creation of military plans was seen as an act of war in 1914. Threatened countries were drawn into WWI.
QUESTIONS • Which decisions made by European leaders in 1914 led directly to the outbreak of war? • Southeastern states in Europe struggled for independence from Ottoman rule. Austria-Hungary and Russia sought domination over these states. Serbia wanted to create a large independent Slavic state in the Balkans. Austria-Hungary was determined to prevent that. • What were the chief domestic problems confronting European nations before 1914? • Socialists became Increasingly inclined to use strikes (sometimes violent) to achieve their goals. This alarmed conservative leaders who feared a European Revolution. This suppression of internal conflict encouraged European leaders to go to war.
TERMS • Propaganda- Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause • Trench Warfare- Fighting from ditches protected by barbed wire • War of Attrition- A war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses. • Total War- Involving a complete mobilization of resources and people. • Planned Economies- systems directed by government agencies
Lawrence of Arabia • Lawrence of Arabia was a British officer in the Middle East in 1917. He wanted Arab princes to oppose their Ottoman overlords. In 1918, British forces from Egypt attacked and destroyed the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East. The British had help from India, Australia, and New Zealand.
Admiral Holtzendorff • Holtzendorff believed that the Germans could starve the British in six months using unrestricted submarine warfare before the Americans could have any time to intervene. He said that not one American will land on the continent. –He was wrong.
Battle of the Marne • German forces planned to sweep around Paris which would enable them to surround the French army. Their plan was halted at the First Battle of the Marne which lasted from September sixth to the tenth. The French sent 2,000 taxicabs full of troops to the front lines. Neither country could be dislodged from their bunkers and the battle quickly turned to stalemate. Two lines of trenches stretched from the English Channel to the frontiers of Switzerland. This trench warfare left Germans and the French in the same positions for four years.
Battle of Tannenberg&Battle at the Masurian Lakes • At the beginning of the war, the Russian army moved into eastern Germany, but was defeated at the Battle of Tannenberg on August 30. The Russians were also defeated at the Battle at the Masurian Lakes on September 15. After these battles, Russia was no longer a threat to Germany.
The Battle of Verdun Trenches were easily attacked, but a constant barrage of fire power did little more than flatten barbed wire. Soldiers would then run towards their enemy’s trenches in an attempt to eliminate them. Unprotected men crossing fields were easy targets for machine guns. Millions were killed between 1916 and 1917. At Verdun, 700,000 men were killed over a 10 month period across a few miles of land.
Battle at Gallipoli • Since the Ottoman Empire joined Germany in August 1914, the Allies tried to open up a Balkan front by landing forces at Gallipoli (which is southwest of Constantinople) in April 1915. The Allies were later forced to withdraw from Gallipoli due to Central Powers.
Lusitania The Lusitania was sunk two weeks after the start of gas warfare on the Western Front. Any ship could carry munitions and therefore, had to be stopped. Germany was unwilling to take the risk of the Lusitania carrying troops or supplies so it was sunk on May 7, 1915 while carrying civilians. Germany believed that this was the only way to accomplish total warfare.
Zimmerman Telegram “Berlin, January 19, 1917 On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to re-conquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Zimmerman(Secretary of State) “
Zimmerman Telegram • The Zimmerman Telegram was sent on January 19, 1917 from the German Secretary of State (Zimmerman). The note was sent to the German minister to Mexico. • Germany wanted to keep the U.S. neutral as it had been so far. However, if they did NOT remain neutral, Germany and Mexico would form an alliance. • Mexico would be given financial aid by Germany and in turn, Mexico was supposed to regain territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona- all parts of the U.S. • The Mexican President was also to be informed that he should “…communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan .“ • Zimmerman thought that increasingly “ruthless” submarine warfare would compel the British to make peace.
The Battle at the Somme • The French and British armies met at the Somme river where the plan was to relieve pressure on the French at Verdun. British General Douglas Haig ordered a massive bombardment on the German lines that lasted for a week. This bombardment wasn’t very effective in penetrating the trenches. Of the 100,000 British troops, 20,000 were killed and over 40,000 were wounded by July 1,1916. This only changed the warfront by ten miles.
Battle at Ypres • FIRST BATTLE AT YPRES • Ypres was taken by Germany at the beginning of WWI. However, in less than a year, British Expeditionary Forces recaptured the town. Germany tried to regain Ypres shortly after, but the BEF held the line. Germans continued attack for four weeks, but with the arrival of French forces, the British STILL kept Ypres. Germany gave up a month later due to inclementweather. • German Losses: 135,000 • BEF Losses: 75,000 • SECOND BATTLE AT YPRES • After retreating in the first battle, Germans returned in April of the following year. This time, the attacks were more aggressive. They first bombarded the front lines and followed that with the use of chlorine gas. French and Algerian troops fled and left a 7km gap in the front line to the north of the town. Germans to advantage of their new, higher positions to use heavy artillery which demolished Ypres.
QUESTIONS • Why did WWI require total warfare? • WWI needed total warfare because a lot of the countries needed many materials and men to continue fighting in the war. For example, Germany had 5.5 million men in uniform in 1916. With all these men, the whole country has to work together to keep things running smoothly. • What methods did governments use to create enthusiasm for war, and counter opposition to the war at home? • Governments would make posters and quotes trying to increase morality. One of the posters said, “Daddy, what did YOU do in the Great War?” The government would also postpone newspapers or censor them. Governments could arrest protestors as traitors.
QUESTIONS • Which government powers increased during the war? • Governments expanded their powers to meet the needs of supplies and men. They also extended power over their economies. • Price, wage, rent, food rations, imports, exports, and transportation were all regulated. • How did the war effect women’s rights, and the role of women in society? • New roles created for women • Chimney sweeps • Truck drivers • Farm laborers • Factory workers • These roles (jobs) were short- lived, but it was a starting point for social and political emancipation for women. • Immediately after the war, Germany, Austria and the U.S. gave women the right to vote. British women gained the right in 1918.
QUESTIONS • Which events brought the United States into the War? • The U.S. tried to remain neutral. • Britain blockaded Germany with their navy. • Germany retaliated by blockading Britain. • May 7, Germany sunk the Lusitania- a civilian ship. There were 1,100 casualties including 100 Americans. • This unrestricted sub warfare was suspended due to U.S. protests. However, it was resumed two years later in order to break the deadlock between Britain and Germany. • Germany believed they could starve the British in six months- before the U.S. intervened. • The United States did intervene and though large amounts of troops did not arrive for another year, this gave allies a financial and psychological boost. • How did soldiers try to make life in the trenches bearable? • Humor magazines were developed to pass the time and to “fulfill the need to laugh.”
TERMS • Soviets- Councils composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers. • War Communism- Government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control.
Grigori Rasputin • An uneducated Siberian peasant who claimed to be a holy man. • The Czar’s wife Alexandra fell under his influence. • Alexandra made important decisions at the battlefront and insisted on consulting Rasputin. • Russia “stumbled” through several military and economic disasters • This forced Russian aristocrats to save the situation. • Rasputin was assassinated in December of 1916.
Alexander Kerensky • Joined the Socialist party in 1905 • He was sent into exile for editing a radical newspaper, He returned in 1906 and found work as a lawyer. • In 1917 he rejoined the SR party and demanded the removal of Nicholas II. • In the new provisional government, Kerensky was appointed as Minister of Justice. He immediately abolished capital punishment. • His zeal for the war caused a rapid increase in deserters. • The Bolsheviks controlled the soviets which gave them access to an armed militia of 25,000. Kerensky could no longer assert his authority. • After discovering that the Bolsheviks intended to seize power, he left Petrograd in hopes of gaining the support of the Russian Army. • The members of his cabinet were arrested later that day. • Kerensky organized troops from the northern front, but they were defeated by Bolshevik forces at Pulkova.
V.I. Lenin and the Bolsheviks • The Bolsheviks started as a small faction called the Russian Social Democrats. • The Bolsheviks became dedicated to violent revolution under the leadership of Lenin. • Lenin saw the opportunity for the Bolsheviks to seize power in 1917. • The Germans willingly sent Lenin to Russia in order to create “disorder.” • He thought that the Bolsheviks should take control of the soviets of soldiers, workers, and peasants and use them to overthrow the provisional government. • Soon, the Bolsheviks made up a small majority in the Petrograd and Moscow soviets. They grew to 240,000 members! • The Bolsheviks seized the Winter Palace on November sixth. • They soon renamed themselves the Communists. • Lenin’s promised peace did not come because Russia “sank” into civil war.
Leon Trotsky • Lenin and the Communists triumphed in the Civil war due to the “organizational genius” of Leon Trotsky. • He was Commissar of War. • Trotsky reinstated the draft and any soldier who deserted the Russian army or refused orders was instantly executed.
Petrograd • 1916- A series of strikes led by working class women Bread rationing had started in Petrograd because of prices that had skyrocketed. • March 8-10,000 women marched through the city. • Troops ordered to shoot the women if necessary refused and joined the strike.
Ukraine, Siberia, and the Treaty of Brest Litovsk • March 3,1918- Lenin gave eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces to Germany. • 1918-1921 the Communists were forced to fight on many fronts. • The first serious threat came from Siberia. • An anti-Communist force advanced almost to the Volga River before being stopped. • The Treaty of Brest Litovsk was signed March 3,1918 between Russia and the Central Powers. • Thus, Russia had exited the War.
QUESTIONS • What were the main causes of the Russian Revolution? • The first cause of the Russian revolution was the end of the 300-year-old Romanov dynasty. The second cause of the revolution was replacement of the Provisional Government by the Bolsheviks. • How did World War I contribute to the Revolution? • Russia was not prepared for WWI. Military incompetence such as Nicholas II’s taking charge of the armed forces without ability or training. Russian industry couldn’t produce weapons necessary for the army.
QUESTIONS • How did the presence of Allied troops in Russia ultimately help the Communists? • Anti-Communist allies numbered in the hundred thousands at one point in Russia. The presence of these foreign troops made it easy to call on patriotic Russians to fight foreigners. • What steps did the Communists take to turn Russia into a centralized state dominated by a single party? • The Communists took control of the government in Russia. • Anti-Communist forces were not unified; Communists had a vision of new socialist order. • The presence of foreign troops in Russia became the straw that broke the camel’s back. They enabled the Communist Government to ask for the help of patriotic Russians. • “By 1921, the Communists were in total command of Russia.”
TERMS • Armistice-a truce, an agreement to end the fighting • Reparation-payment made to the victors by the vanquished to cover the costs of the war • Mandate-a nation governed by another nation on behalf of the League of Nations
Erich von Ludendorff • Due to the withdrawal of the Russians gave new hope to the Germans of ending the war. Erich von Ludendorff led the German military operations and decided to lead a military gamble and try a grand blow in the west to stop the military stalemate. This was a mistake ,however, because the Germans were later stopped at the Second Battle of the Marne on July 18. On September 29, 1918, General Ludendorff warned the German leaders that they were bound to lose the war. He said that the government had to ask for peace at once.
Friedrich Ebert • After William II left Germany on November 9, the Social Democrats, which was under Friedrich Ebert, announced the creation of a democratic republic.
David Lloyd George • David Lloyd George was Prime Minister of Great Britain won a decisive election in December of 1918. He wanted to punish the Germans by making them pay for the war.
Georges Clemenceau • Clemenceau was one of the French wartime leaders during World War I. He became prime minister of France in 1917. He believed that the Germans were responsible for the war and wanted to punish the Germans by making them pay for the war. He also wanted to make a treaty that guaranteed French Security from the Germans and also make a country named Rhineland that separated the two countries. He later gave up this idea and accepted a defensive alliance with Great Britain and the United States.
Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points • Woodrow Wilson felt that peace is something that the world should strive towards and these Fourteen Points are the only possible ways to peace in the world. The first of the statements says, “Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.” These 14 points were not accepted by George or Clemenceau.
Second Battle of the Marne • The Second Battle of the Marne was a major battle in World War I. This battle was fought near the Marne River from July 15 to August 5, 1918. This was the last major offensive move from the Germans on the Western Front and the Germans had lost and suffered many casualties. This loss led to many Allied victories and was a big step to the end of the war.
QUESTIONS • What were the most important provisions to the Treaty of Versailles? -Military and Territorial provisions were very important in the Treaty of Versailles. The treaty said that Germany had to reduce its army to a hundred thousand men, reduce its navy, and eliminate its air force. • Why was the mandate system created? Which countries became mandates? Who governed them? -The mandate system was created because of Western nations changing their minds and wanting to control and govern other nations. Woodrow Wilson opposed countries annexing colonial territories by the Allies. Thus, the mandate system was created. Lebanon and Syria became mandates under French control while Iraq and Palestine were mandates under Britain control.
QUESTIONS • Compare and Contrast Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points to the Treaty of Versailles. Fourteen PointsBothTreaty of Versailles Wants world peace I Wants peace in Europe Considered nice I Considered harsh peace Wishes to help everyone I Wants to help Europe Rejected I Accepted Both peace treaties Involve Europe I I