210 likes | 351 Vues
High Technology Surgery. Mr McDonald. Downloaded from SchoolHistory.co.uk. What we will learn today:. How developments in surgery have progressed What factors have played a part in these developments. X-Rays.
E N D
High Technology Surgery Mr McDonald Downloaded from SchoolHistory.co.uk
What we will learn today: • How developments in surgery have progressed • What factors have played a part in these developments.
X-Rays • Originally developed in 1895 by Wilhelm Rontgen, they really came into effect in World War One when finding bullets in the body really showed the usefulness of the X-Ray machine. • X-Rays made it possible to see inside the body without having to cut inside.
Electrocardiograph • Developed in 1903 by Willem Einthoven it allowed a doctor to monitor a patient’s heartbeat in a more effective manner. • This was highly useful in surgery to gauge how a patient was doing.
Kidney Machine • Developed in 1943 by Willem Kolff (a Dutch Surgeon). • It pioneered the move to get machines to do the jobs the body could not do through illness or injury.
Heart and Lung Machine • This machine allowed the heart and lungs to stop working allowing surgery to be performed whilst the machine took over. • The first operation using it was in 1953.
Microscopes • Not the usual type but ones for surgery. • In the 1960s, along with fine sutures and needles it allowed surgery to be performed on blood vessels and nerves – even reattach limbs. • This led to the development of MICRO-SURGERY.
Fibre Optics • This is more commonly known as ‘key hole’ surgery. • This was surgery that was not invasive and did not need major cutting inside the human body.
Case Study: Heart Surgery • Before World War Two operations to do with the heart were rarely considered as a viable idea. This was because if the heart stopped for more than four minutes then the brain would die from a lack of oxygen! • World War Two provided some change as surgeons needed to repair wounded soldiers’ hearts.
Dwight Harken • He was an army surgeon in WW2. • He used to open the heart and fish out bits of shrapnel and bullets. Of course this was risky but it did sometimes work and was far better than the alternative. • However his pioneering work did little about people with defective hearts who needed longer operations!
Progression • Canadian Bill Biggelow believed reducing the temperature of the body would lower the heart rat and thus provide more time. • He was correct however there was still not enough time to perform complex operations with any degree of success.
Pioneers in Heart Surgery • Norman Shumway – University of Minnesota. He developed heart surgery although up to 50% of patients died. • Michael de Blakey – Methodist Hospital Texas. He used new technology to replace diseased arteries. (Dacron) • Both men made progress but the problem of transplanting a heart (tissue rejection remained.
Christian Barnard • Surgeon in South Africa. • In 1967 he transplanted a heart from a road accident victim to Louis Washkansky (he died after eighteen days) • Rejection of the heart was still a problem. The drugs used practically killed off his immune system so he died of pneumonia.
Christian Barnard • Hero or villain? • Many saw him as a hero but public expectation of surgery was too high considering the dangers of rejection were still there. • Others saw him as a villain who exploited the patients for his ego. • In the end, heart transplants stopped until rejection was solved.
Developments • To counter the issue of heart transplants, an artificial heart was developed. In 1982 Barney Clarke received one and lived for three weeks. • However in 1974, the issue of rejection was solved. • A drug called Cyclosporin was developed that reduced the risk of tissue rejection. By 1987, over 90% of transplants ended with the patient living over two years
Today • Transplants are routine. • Careful use of drugs to control rejection means that patients have better chance of survival however this is all linked to a number of factors • The skill of the Surgeon • The development of drugs • The care of the patient in Intensive Care • The development of new technologies
Conclusion: An Overview • Prior work by Joseph Lister and others in the 19th century on anaesthetics and antiseptics. • Development of aseptic surgery – surgery without germs. • Discovery of different blood groups. • Specialisation within surgery; heart, brain etc. • Developments in science X-Ray, CAT Scan etc. • War – speeded up development e.g. plastic surgery.