ARCHITECTURAL STYLES OF AMERICA
Colonial Style • Early National and Romantic Style • Victorian Style • Period Style • Modern Style • Postmodern Style
Early Spanish, French, English • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • with central chimney, casement windows, steeply-pitched roof, and second story overhang . Other late Medieval features include hall and parlor floor plan (bilateral symmetry) and central chimney. Choir lofts were often built facing outdoors for purposes of outdoor processions.
Spanish Colonial Church Spanish Baroque Church Near Union,CT.c.1730 Hampton Lillibridge House
Georgian Style • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Renaissance-inspired classical symmetry, two rooms deep, two rooms high (Four over Four plan), central or end chimneys, classical detailing, transom lights, pilasters around door. Hipped roof (British Georgian), or side-gable roof (American Georgian).
Hazardville,CT. Somers,CT.c.1776 Scantic,CT.
Madison,IN. Lewistown,PA. Sturbridge,MA.
Branford,CT,c.1712 Bellefonte,PA. Home of William Weston,c.1755
Federal (Adam) • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Fan light over door (almost always rounded, rarely squared), sidelights, classical/Greek detailing of entryway, Palladian windows, balustrades, oval/circular rooms in some high style examples. Symmetrical as Georgian style. Windows: double-hung sash windows for first time (Georgian also).
Boston,MA.Stephen's Church Boston,MA.State House The White House,1800
Lewistown,PA.McCoy House Branford,CT Back to the top Savannah,GA.c.1834
Early National and Romantic Styles • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Gable or hipped, low-pitch roof; dentil cornice emphasized with wide band of trim -- cornice represents classical entablature ; porches: square or rounded columns , first style to use gable-front floor plan , temple-front entryway with entry door surrounded by rectangular transom and sidelights .
A Greek-Revival Church Branford,CT.City Hall Massie Common School House
Provincetown,MA. Northeasten CT.Church Savannah,GA.c.1854 Charlton Hall
A Greek Revival Church A Classic Cottage Savannah,GA.c.1869
Gothic Revival • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Steeply pitched roof, cross-gabled, decorated verge boards, pointed-arch windows, sometimes stained glass, like churches. Gothic window above entry, one-story porch with flattened, Gothic arches.
Branford,CT. A Carpenter Gothic House Brick Church Bowen House,c.1846 Charlotte,NC.
The Green-Meldrim House Globe,AZ.Gothic Church First Congregational Church,c.1876
Italianate • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • 2 or 3 stories, rarely 1 story; low-pitched roof, widely overhanging eaves; large, decorative brackets beneath eaves; tall, narrow windows (most often on commercial buildings), commonly arched or curved above; some with square cupola or tower (campanile), elaborate wrap-around porch (or smaller entry porch) with decorative Italianate double columns and other details.
Row of Italianate Commercial Building Madison,IN. Italianate House Some in Upstate NY. Jerseyville,IL.Currently a Bed&Breakfast
Tolland,CT. Italianate Pord. Lasvegas,NM. back to the top Scantic,CT.C.1849
Second Empire • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: Basically Italianate style/forms with Mansard roof!! Dormer windows, sometimes a square (not round) tower, decorative brackets, molded cornice, similar to Italianate detail on windows, doors; Floor plan often includes pavilions: outward projection of a building's center or side.
Madison,IN.Masonic Building,c.1871 Effingharn,IL.Country Courthouse Bellefonte,PA. Bellefonte,PA.Brockerhoff Hotel
Romanesque Revival • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Round arches over windows and/or entryways; thick, cavernous entryways and window openings; thick masonry walls, rounded towers with conical roof; facades are asymmetrical; variable stone and brick façade.
Jerseyville,IL.County House Boston,MA.Trinity Church Jerseyville,IL.County Courthouse Toronto,ONT.City Hall Knights of Pythias,c.1890
Troy,KS.County Courthouse Savannah,GA. Leavenworth,KS.Train Depot Savannah,GA.c.1892 Bardstown,KY.
Queen Anne • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Steeply pitched, irregular roof shapes; dominant, front-facing gable; patterned shingles, bay windows, picturesque massing , polychromatic and decorative ornamentation; partial or full-width porches of one story; multiple gables and dormers; occasional towers and turrets, rounded or square.
Emden,IL. Rockville,CT. Bellefonte,PA. Kanab,UT. A Commercial Building Elizabeth,IL.
Carroll Street Los Angeles Redlands,CA. South of Kamloops,BC. Branford,CT.Ephrain-Parrish House Branford,CT.
Folk Victorian • IDENTIFYING FEATURES: • Porches with spindle work detailing, L-shaped or gable-front plan, cornice brackets, details often with Italianate and/or Queen Anne inspiration, sometimes Gothic.
Flagstaff,AZ. Prescott,AZ. Silverton,CO.
Tombstone,AZ. Las Vegas,NM. Back to the top
Colonial Revival • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND FEATURES: Initially inspired by the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial: new interest in American colonial past. Architects studied colonial styles throughout New England by 1890s. A dominant style for domestic buildings nationwide 1900-1940s. Georgian and Adam styles were the backbone of revival ideas, with a secondary influence of Dutch Colonial (with Gambrel roof). The colonial revival style is sometimes referred to as neo-Georgian, due to its striking resemblance to the earlier Georgian and federal styles.
A Commercial Building State College,PA. Stafford,CT.Town Hall Union,CT.Public Library Plymouth,MA.Post Office
Manchester,CT. Sturbridge,MA. St.Louis,MO.
Tudor Revival • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND FEATURES: • Tudor revival became especially popular with 1920s suburban homes, loosely based on late medieval prototypes. Many are identified with false (ornamental) half-timbering, a medieval English building tradition, often with stucco or masonry veneered walls, steeply pitched roof, cross-gabled plans. A variety of this is sometimes referred to as the picturesque cottage or English cottage, which typically includes a picturesque (asymmetrical) floor plan but without the half timbering .
State College,PA. Las Vegas,NM. Ashville,NC.
State College,PA. Savannah,GA. Branford,CT. Urbana,IL.
Beaux Arts • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND FEATURES: • Beaux-Arts style was advocated by Americans who studied at the Ecole. The style emphasized classical forms and styles, elaborate detailing, massive plans, heavy masonry. Mostly used for grand public and institutional buildings, and the private homes of America's industrial barons. The primary inspiration for this style was Chicago's Columbian Exposition in 1893.
Washington,D.C.Union Station Charlotte,NC.City Hall A Riverside County Courthouse A County Courthouse
Neoclassical • Historical Background and Features: • Neoclassical became a dominant style for domestic buildings nationwide between 1900-1940s. It was directly inspired by the Beaux-Arts style and the Columbian Exposition: classical symmetry, full-height porch with columns and temple front; classical ornament. Basically, this is the revival of the Greek Revival style.
St.Louis,MO.c.1908 Lincoln,IL.County Courthouse Las Vegas,NM.Bank Building Lewistown,PA. Warren,AZ.House
Branford,CT.Public Library Ashville,NC. A Herolerson County Courthouse St.Louis,MO.