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ISRAEL/PALESTINE: An Introduction

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  1. ISRAEL/PALESTINE:An Introduction Robert B. Ross Point Park University

  2. Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict

  3. Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict • “They’ve been fighting for hundreds of years”

  4. Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict • “They’ve been fighting for hundreds of years” • “It’s complicated”

  5. Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict • “They’ve been fighting for hundreds of years” • “It’s complicated” • “It’s all about religion”

  6. Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict • “They’ve been fighting for hundreds of years” • Periodic fighting since 1917 • “It’s complicated” • “It’s all about religion”

  7. Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict • “They’ve been fighting for hundreds of years” • Periodic fighting since 1917 • “It’s complicated” • 1948: The Birth of Israel and the Nakba (“Catastrophe”) • “It’s all about religion”

  8. Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict • “They’ve been fighting for hundreds of years” • Periodic fighting since 1917 • “It’s complicated” • 1948: The Birth of Israel and the Nakba (“Catastrophe”) • 1967: Israeli occupation of Palestinian territory • “It’s all about religion”

  9. Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict • “They’ve been fighting for hundreds of years” • Periodic fighting since 1917 • “It’s complicated” • 1948: The Birth of Israel and the Nakba (“Catastrophe”) • 1967: Israeli occupation of Palestinian territory • “It’s all about religion” • It’s mostly about land

  10. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine

  11. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon)

  12. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon)

  13. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic)

  14. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule

  15. Rise of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1683

  16. Fall of the Ottoman Empire, 1807-1924

  17. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule

  18. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule • 1880s: Zionist Movement begins

  19. Pre-Zionist Palestine (1878)

  20. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule • 1880s: Zionist Movement begins

  21. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule • 1880s: Zionist Movement begins • 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement

  22. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule • 1880s: Zionist Movement begins • 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement • 1917: Balfour Declaration

  23. Balfour Declaration

  24. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule • 1880s: Zionist Movement begins • 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement • 1917: Balfour Declaration • 1920: British Mandate rule begins

  25. Palestine at beginning of British Mandate (1920)

  26. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule • 1880s: Zionist Movement begins • 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement • 1917: Balfour Declaration • 1920: British Mandate rule begins • 1942-1945: Nazi Holocaust

  27. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule • 1880s: Zionist Movement begins • 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement • 1917: Balfour Declaration • 1920: British Mandate rule begins • 1942-1945: Nazi Holocaust • 1947: UN partition plan

  28. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule • 1880s: Zionist Movement begins • 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement • 1917: Balfour Declaration • 1920: British Mandate rule begins • 1942-1945: Nazi Holocaust • 1947: UN partition plan

  29. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule • 1880s: Zionist Movement begins • 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement • 1917: Balfour Declaration • 1920: British Mandate rule begins • 1942-1945: Nazi Holocaust • 1947: UN partition plan • 1948: Birth of Israel or The Naqba (Catastrophe)

  30. 1948: Two “Rights to Return”

  31. 1948: Two “Rights to Return” • UN Resolution 194 (December 1948):

  32. 1948: Two “Rights to Return” • UN Resolution 194 (December 1948): • “The UN General Assembly resolves that the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for the loss of or damage to property which, under the principles of international law and in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible”

  33. 1948: Two “Rights to Return” • UN Resolution 194 (December 1948): • “The UN General Assembly resolves that the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for the loss of or damage to property which, under the principles of international law and in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible” • Jewish “Right to Return”:

  34. 1948: Two “Rights to Return” • UN Resolution 194 (December 1948): • “The UN General Assembly resolves that the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for the loss of or damage to property which, under the principles of international law and in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible” • Jewish “Right to Return”: • “the State of Israel will be open for Jewish immigration and for the ingathering of the exiles...”

  35. Population Movements (1948-1951)

  36. Palestinian Refugee Camps

  37. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule • 1880s: Zionist Movement begins • 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement • 1917: Balfour Declaration • 1920: British Mandate rule begins • 1942-1945: Nazi Holocaust • 1947: UN partition plan • 1948: Birth of Israel or The Naqba (Catastrophe)

  38. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule • 1880s: Zionist Movement begins • 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement • 1917: Balfour Declaration • 1920: British Mandate rule begins • 1942-1945: Nazi Holocaust • 1947: UN partition plan • 1948: Birth of Israel or The Naqba (Catastrophe) • 1956: Suez Crisis

  39. 1956 “Suez Crisis”

  40. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule • 1880s: Zionist Movement begins • 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement • 1917: Balfour Declaration • 1920: British Mandate rule begins • 1942-1945: Nazi Holocaust • 1947: UN partition plan • 1948: Birth of Israel or The Naqba (Catastrophe) • 1956: Suez Crisis

  41. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule • 1880s: Zionist Movement begins • 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement • 1917: Balfour Declaration • 1920: British Mandate rule begins • 1942-1945: Nazi Holocaust • 1947: UN partition plan • 1948: Birth of Israel or The Naqba (Catastrophe) • 1956: Suez Crisis • 1964: Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is formed

  42. Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine • 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) • 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) • 1516-1917: Ottoman Rule • 1880s: Zionist Movement begins • 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement • 1917: Balfour Declaration • 1920: British Mandate rule begins • 1942-1945: Nazi Holocaust • 1947: UN partition plan • 1948: Birth of Israel or The Naqba (Catastrophe) • 1956: Suez Crisis • 1964: Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is formed • 1967: “Six-Day War”