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Matthew Cantley Samantha Johnson Girwan Khadka PowerPoint Presentation
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Matthew Cantley Samantha Johnson Girwan Khadka

Matthew Cantley Samantha Johnson Girwan Khadka

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Matthew Cantley Samantha Johnson Girwan Khadka

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  1. Hypermedia Matthew Cantley Samantha Johnson Girwan Khadka

  2. History of Hypermedia • Ted Nelson coined the term hypertext in 1963. • Also credited for being first to use words like hypermedia, transclusion, virtuality, intertwingularity and teledildonics. • Hypertext spawned from the concept of Memex (Vannevar Bush):a mechanical desk linked to an extensive archive of microfilms, able to display books, writings, or any document from a library. • Earlier hypertext: footnotes

  3. Multimedia and Hypermedia Multimedia Hypermedia Includes a combination of graphics, audio, video, plain text and hyperlinks intertwined together. Non-linear medium of information. Example: World Wide Web • Includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video and interactive content forms. • Linear medium of information. • Example: non-interactive cinema presentation

  4. Example of Hypermedia

  5. More examples • You are reading a text on the Japanese language. You select a Japanese phrase, then hear the phrase as spoken in the native tongue. • You are viewing a company's floor plan, you select an office by clicking on a room. The employee's name and picture appears with a list of their current projects. • You are a law student studying the California Revised Statutes. By selecting a passage, you find precedents from a 1920 Supreme Court ruling stored at Cornell. Cross-referenced hyperlinks allow you to view any one of 500 related cases with audio annotations.

  6. First hypermedia system • Aspen Movie Map: Developed by Andrew Lippman and team in 1978 • Allowed users to take a virtual tour of Aspen, Colorado • Cameras mounted on a car driven around city; film then assembled into a laserdisc one segment per view per city block

  7. What is “Hypermedia” about it?

  8. First Truly Universal Hypermedia • Hypercard: Application program from Apple Inc. before WWW! • combined database capabilities with a graphical, flexible, user-modifiable approach. Included HyperTalk, a programming language to manipulate data and user interface. • Concept similar to stacks of index cards; metaphor: rolodex • Before PowerPoint, used as general presentation tool • Also, used in games, educational teaching aids, off-line wiki (Britannica CD and Encarta CD version)

  9. Hypercard concept still alive!!!

  10. History of the World Wide Web • Memex • Xanadu • OtherLandmarks in the Development of the World Wide Web

  11. Memex • The history of hypertext begins in July of 1945. President Roosevelt's science advisor during World War II, Dr. Vannevar Bush, proposes Memex in an article titled As We May Think • In the article, Bush outlines the ideas for a machine that would have the capacity to store textual and graphical information in such a way that any piece of information could be arbitrarily linked to any other piece. • Memex would also give the user the capability to create an information trail of traveled links which could later be retrieved Vannevar Bush

  12. Theodor Holm Nelson Xanadu • Theodor Holm Nelson, a writer, film-maker, and software designer, conceived the idea of Xanadu in 1981. • Xanadu is a system for the network sale of documents with automatic royalty on every byte. • The transclusion feature allows quotation of fragments of any size with royalty to the original publisher. • This is an implementation of a connected literature. • It is a system for a point-and-click universe. • This is a completely interactive docuverse.

  13. Xanadu (cont.) • In the Xanadu scheme, a universal document database (docuverse), would allow addressing of any substring of any document from any other document. "This requires an even stronger addressing scheme than the Universal Resource Locators used in the World-Wide Web." • Additionally, Xanadu would permanently keep every version of every document, thereby eliminating the possibility of a broken link and the ever-so-familiar 404-Document Not Found error. Xanadu would only maintain the current version of the document in its entirety. • Xanadu was never implemented • In Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem, Kubla Khan, Xanadu is a "magic place of literary memory" where nothing is ever forgotten Xanadu from Kubla Khan

  14. OtherLandmarks in the Development of the World Wide Web • Janet Walker's 1985 Symbolics Document Examiner which was the first hypertext-based system to gain wide-spread acceptance and usage. • 1990,Tim Berners-Lee starts work on a hypertext GUI browser+editor using the NeXTStep development environment. He makes up "WorldWideWeb" as a name for the program. • 1990, Line mode browser and Worldwide Web browser/editor demonstrable. Acces is possible to hypertext files, CERNVM "FIND", and Internet news articles. • 1991 to present, access continues and grows into what we know as the World Wide Web today.

  15. Future of Hypermedia: Teleporters • Beam me up, General!

  16. Works cited • • •