Opening Case – Ford Motor • Type A personalities • Type B personalities • Theory X, Y • Autocratic, democratic
Leaders • Leaders are individuals who exert influence to help meet group goals • Formal • Informal • Leader effectiveness is the extent to which a leader actually does help
Early Approaches to Leadership • Leader Trait Approach • Behavior Approach • Fiedler’s Contingency Model
Early Approaches to Leadership • The trait approach seeks to identify personal characteristics that effective leaders possess. • The behavior approach focuses on the behaviors that effective leaders engage in.
Intelligence Task-relevant knowledge Dominance Self-confidence Energy/activity levels Tolerance for stress Integrity and honesty Emotional maturity The Leader Trait Approach
The Leader Behavior Approach Consideration Initiating Structure
The Behavior Approach Leader Reward Behavior Leader Punishing Behavior
Trait and Behavior Approach Misses • Trait = what leaders are like • Behavior = what leaders do • Both ignore the situation
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership • Leadership effectiveness determined by • The characteristic of individuals • The situations in which they find themselves • Distinct leader styles • Relationship-oriented • Task-oriented
Relationship-oriented Wants to be liked by and to get along well with subordinates Getting job done is second priority Task-oriented Wants high performance and accomplishment of all tasks Getting job done is first priority Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership
Measuring Leader Style • Least preferred co-employee scale • High LPC leaders = relationship-oriented • Low LPC leaders = task-oriented
Situational Characteristics • Leader-Member Relations • Task Structure • Position Power
Advice to Managers • Do not expect leaders to change their leader style from task-oriented to relationship-oriented or vice versa. • Assign task-oriented leaders to very unfavorable or to very favorable situations. Assign relationship-oriented leaders to moderately favorable situations. • If you or one of your subordinates is a relationship-oriented leader in a very unfavorable situation, try to increase the favorability of the situation by improving leader-member relations, increasing task structure by clarifying goals or ways to achieve goals, or raising levels of position power.
Contemporary Perspectives on Leadership • Path-Goal Theory • Vroom and Yetton Model • Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Path-Goal Theory A theory which describes how leaders can motivate their followers to achieve group and organizational goals and the kinds of behaviors leaders can engage in to motivate followers.
Guidelines for Path-Goal Theory • Determine what outcomes subordinates are trying to obtain in the workplace • Reward subordinates for performing at a high level or achieving their work goals by giving them desired outcomes • Make sure subordinates believe that they can obtain their work goals and perform at a high level
Path-Goal Theory: Types of Behaviors • Directive behavior • Supportive behavior • Participative behavior • Achievement-oriented behavior
Vroom and Yetton Model Autocratic Consultative Group Delegated
Group Problems and Decisions AI. AII. CI. CII. GII. Leader solves the problem or makes the decision using information available at the time. No outside input. The leader obtains the necessary information from subordinates. The leader makes the decision. The leader shares the problem with the relevant subordinates individually and gets their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. The leader makes the decision. The leader shares the problem with subordinates as a group, obtaining their ideas and suggestions. The leader makes the decision. The leader shares the problem with subordinates as a group, does not try to influence the group, and is willing to accept and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. Least Participative Most Participative
Individual Problems and Decisions AI. AII. CI. CII. GII. The leader solves the problem or makes the decision using information available at the time. No outside input. The leader obtains the necessary information from the subordinate involved in the decision. The leader makes the decision. The leader shares the problem with the subordinate and asks for ideas and suggestions. The leader makes the decision. The leader shares the problem with the subordinate, and together they analyze the problem and arrive at a mutually agreeable solution. The leader delegates the problem to the subordinate, provides any relevant information, but gives the subordinate responsibility for solving the problem. Least Participative Most Participative
Leader-Member Exchange Theory • A theory that describes the different kinds of relationships that may develop between a leader and a follower. • Leader-follower Dyad-. • In-group- • Out-group-
Substitutes and Neutralizers • Leadership Substitute: Something that acts in place of a formal leader and makes leadership unnecessary (functional). • Intrinsic motivation of subordinates • Skill level of subordinates and nature of work • Leadership Neutralizer: Something that prevents a leader from having any influence and negates a leader’s efforts (dysfunctional). • Lack of ability to reward/punish • Physical distance between leader and workers
New Topics inLeadership Research • Transformational and Charismatic Leadership • Transactional Leadership • Leader Mood • Gender and Leadership
Transactional vs. Transformational Leadership • Transactional: • Transformational:
Characteristics of Transformational Leadership Transformational Leader Charisma Developmental Consideration Intellectual Stimulation
Characteristics of Transformational Leadership • Other, key considerations:
Gender and Leadership • When men and women have leadership positions in organizations, they tend to behave in a similar manner. Men do not engage in more initiating structure and women do not engage in more consideration. • Women do tend to have more democratic leadership styles, whereas men tend to be more autocratic.