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  1. Independence Unit 2.2

  2. Enlightenment Philosophers • Thomas Hobbes • Need for Gov’t – “Beastly Nature” • Baron De Montesquieu • Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances • Voltaire • “freedoms” – intellectual, speech, religion (against state religion) • John Locke • Natural Rights. What are they? • Two Treatises on Civil Government • Jean Jacques Rousseau • Wrote Social Contract– People and Gov’t have contract

  3. The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. Thomas Jefferson

  4. Natural Rights • Philosophy of John Locke • Rights are derived from the people’s basic moral sense supersede the authority of the government • Consent of the Governed • Limited Government • Natural rights are superior to a government • Life, Liberty, and Property

  5. Thomas Paine • Wrote Common Sense • Essay widely read by the people • Urged colonies to break away and form new country • A new breed of “American” • Would later write The American Crisis pamphlets which would encourage the Americans to continue the fight.

  6. Road to Unity • Dominion of New England • Albany Plan of Union • Stamp Act Congress • 1st Continental Congress • 2nd Continental Congress

  7. 2nd Continental Congress • Meet in Philadelphia State House • President of Congress – John Hancock • Some early events: • Olive Branch Petition • What did the King do with it? • Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms • Who wrote this?

  8. Committee of Five • Declaration is proposed by Richard Henry Lee • Committee of Five to write it: Adams, Franklin, Jefferson, Sherman, and Livingston • Jefferson actually wrote most of it. Or did he? • “Remember the Ladies” – Abigail Adams • What issues would cause problems in the passing of the Declaration?

  9. When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

  10. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.

  11. Loyalists • Also called Tories • Why would someone be a loyalist? • Respect for the King • “order” and law (no mob rule / mobcracy) • Family ties • Worker for crown (or Church of Eng) • Part of great(est) country • Thought Britain would win • Rich • But how is the American Revolution different than most other revolutions in world history?

  12. Patriots and others groups • What about these groups of people? • Quakers • Native Americans • Slaves • Canadians • Floridians • Patriots was the name for people who supported independence. • What did the King call them? • About what fraction were Patriots? Loyalists? • Then what were the others? Why?

  13. Western Lands and their relationship to the independence drive -Did George Washington have anything to gain financially with independence? • Daniel Boone – Wilderness Road – Kentucky • George Rogers Clark victories at Ft. Kaskaskia and Ft. Vincennes in 1778 and 1779 • How would these two minor battles be so important for American History in the future?

  14. Reflection Questions • How did the European Enlightenment writers influence the independence movement? • Why was Thomas Paine important for the independence movement? • Why would someone oppose the independence of the colonies? • How do the western lands figure into the independence movement and the future of the United States?

  15. Links • - Too late to apologize • – Review Video • – PP • – School House Rock Fireworks