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Independence!

Independence!

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Independence!

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  1. Independence! The end of the revolutionary war Chapter 7 Section 5

  2. War Spreads • Battles reached the western frontier • Small battles between Continentals and Britain’s Native American allies • George Rogers Clark stepped in as leader in this area • Gained trust of soldiers and commanders • Even respected by the Native Americans he was fighting

  3. The War in the West • George Rogers Clark had spent years exploring and mapping • Created an army by gathering soldiers from small towns • Traveled around frontier to encourage men to join the Continental Army • Proposed attacking Kaskaskia – British trading town on the Mississippi River

  4. June 1778 – 175 soldiers Cross the river, march 120 miles through forests Plan worked! British surrendered the town on July 4, 1778 without a fight Clark’s Plan for Kaskaskia – SURPRISE!!

  5. Town of Vincennes – surrendered upon hearing of defeat in Kaskaskia Clark organizes meetings with Native Americans – convinces them to be temporarily neutral While meeting, the British retake the town Battle of Vincennes – February 1779: Clark’s army recaptures the town War in the West – VincennesOn the Wabash River in Indiana

  6. The War in the South • After defeat at Saratoga, British refocus efforts in southern colonies • Gaining freed slaves in the army • Many Tories (Loyalists) in the South – could offer support

  7. The War in the South • British army was led by General Cornwallis • Considered by many to be a military genius • As they marched: • Destroyed Patriot property • Seized plantations • Ruined crops • Killed farm animals

  8. The War in the South Savannah, Georgia Use a secret trail into the port city to surprise the Patriots and capture the city Showed the trail by a freed slave

  9. The War in the South Charleston,S.C. Fought for months Patriots surrender 5,000 Patriots taken POW

  10. The War in the South • Camden, South Carolina • August 1780 • Continentals led by Horatio Gates • ½ # troops that he thought • Troops = hungry/tired; Gates fed them, but many got sick! • Forces severely weakened • Attack Camden – many soldiers panic and run = forces fall apart • Gates’ army gets crushed • Only 700 of 4,000 troops remain • The Patriots had lost their southern army

  11. The War in the South • Patriots start using guerrilla warfare – swift, hit-and-run attacks • Led by Francis Marion • Used guerrilla warfare to destroy communication and supply lines • Became known as the “Swamp Fox” because no one could catch him

  12. Patriot Troubles • Benedict Arnold becomes a traitor • Thought he was treated poorly By Continental Congress • Low on money • Pay soldiers • Buy supplies • Foreign allies hadn’t helped much yet

  13. Yorktown – Patriot Victory! • Cornwallis sends troops to Yorktown, Virginia • Prepares to attack Patriots being led by Lafayette • Washington was in NY • Created a plan with the French • Troops will march south • French Navy will travel down Chesapeake Bay • Surround Cornwallis with 16,000 troops and the French Navy

  14. Yorktown • Patriots hold city under siege for weeks • British navy driven back by the French • Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781 • British troops leave Yorktown on October 20, 1781

  15. The Treaty of Paris • At the end of any war, a treaty is signed • Agreement between previously warring nations • June 1781 – Continental Congress begins peace negotiations with the British • Led by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Henry Laurens • Franklin: “Let us now forgive and forget…America will, with God’s blessing, become a great and happy Country; and England, if she has at length gained wisdom, will have gained something” • Negotiations took 2 years

  16. The Treaty of Paris Great Britain recognizes an independent United States New borders for the United States Americans gain rights to settle and trade west of original colonial lines Soldiers return home

  17. The New United States