As living things are constantly being investigated, new attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system. Today, there are six kingdoms. # diff. species on earth/Kingdom (not total number of organisms – bacteria would win that one, by far!! Remember: Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
The grouping of organisms into KINGDOMS is based on 3 factors: 1. Cell Type (prokyotic or eukaryotic) 2. Cell Number (unicellular or multicellular) 3. Feeding Type (autotroph or heterotroph)
1st criteria for Kingdom Divisions: Cell Type The presence or absence of cellular structures such as the nucleus, mitochondria, or a cell wall. Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes (no nucleus) (nucleus)
Prokaryotes ex: Bacteria DO NOT HAVE: • An organized nucleus • Structured organelles Borreliaburgdorferiis a spirochete, a class of long, slender bacteria that typically take on a coiled shape. Infection with this bacterium causes Lyme disease.
Prokaryotes Basic Structure • DNA – strands floating in cytoplasm/small rings called plasmids • Ribosomes- protein synthesis sites • Cytoplasm • Cell membrane & cell wall
Eukaryotes DO HAVE: • nucleus organized with a membrane • other organelles w/membranes
Unicellular- single celled organism • ex: bacteria, most protists, yeast (type of a fungus) 2nd criteria for Kingdom Divisions: Cell Number • Multicellular- many celled organism • ex: algae (type of a protist), fungi, plants, • animals
Multicellular Unicellular Yeast (type of fungus) budding
3rd Criteria for Kingdom Divisions: Feeding Type How do the organisms get their food? • Autotrophs/Producers • Make their own food • Heterotrophs/Consumers • Must eat other organisms to survive • Includes decomposers – those that eat dead matter!
6 Kingdoms • Archaebacteria • Eubacteria • Protista • Fungi • Plantae • Animalia Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
Viruses Not quite living!!! They are not found in any kingdom. Non-Living CharacteristicsLiving Characteristics -Don’t need food, O2, H2O -DNA, RNA -Don’t move -Reproduce (but only inside another -Don’t grow living organism…in their host) -Don’t respond -Not a cell Parasite: all viruses; depend on other living things to function and to reproduce; cause harm to host Host: living thing that viruses must live on or in to reproduce Structures: protein coat and genetic material (either DNA or RNA) Shape: many different shapes; can only infect cells of certain shapes HIV Swine Flu Size: much smaller that bacteria; measured in nanometers (1/billionth of a meter)
Virus Reproduction Viruses can reproduce only inside a living cell, the host cell. 1. Bacteriophage binding to the cell wall of a bacterium. 2. Bacteriophage injecting its genetic material into the bacterium. 3. The bacteriophage genome replicates. 4. The bacteriophage components and enzymes continue to be produced. 5. The components of the bacteriophage assemble. 6. Bacteriophage enzyme breaks down the bacterial cell wall causing the bacterium to split open.
How can I get a virus??? Viruses are transmitted/spread through vectors (a carrier that transfers an infective agent from one host to another) Some common vectors are: • Airborne • Influenza (flu) • Common cold • Chicken pox
Contaminated food or water • Hepatitis A • Polio
Infected animal bite • West Nile • Rabies • Avian influenza (bird flu) • Ebola • Rabies
Sexual contact • HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) • Herpes HIV invading white blood cells
Contaminated blood products or needles • HIV • Hepatitis
Virus Treatment • Viruses cannot be treated with antibiotics. • There are some anti-viral drugs available. • You generally have to wait for the virus to run its course and let your immune system fight it off.
Now…back to the kingdoms!!! • Everything found in the kingdoms exhibit all of the characteristics of living things. • Remember the 6 Characteristics of LIFE…1. made of cells 2. responds to stimuli 3. reproduce 4. get/use energy 5. grow and develop 6. made of similar chemicals/metabolism
Archaebacteria Live in very harsh environments (ex: hot springs, salt flats, deep sea vents, conditions with no oxygen, highly acidic environments) • extremophiles Methanosarcina mazei Uyuni Salt Flats in southwest Bolivia
Eubacteria It is the eubacteria that most people are talking about when they say bacteria, because they live in more neutral conditions. “common bacteria” Bacteria are everywhere! They live in the soil, air, water, and the intestines of humans and animals. Rats, mice, and insects can carry bacteria to food, too. Most bacteria need a moist, warm environment, and need food to grow.
Bacteria Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes. Staphylococcusaureus
Bacterial Shapes Bacteria come in 3 main shapes • Sphere (cocci) • Rod or Stick (bacilli) • Spiral (spirilla)
Bacterial Locomotion • Some bacteria have flagella or cilia for movement • Some secrete a slime layer and ooze over surfaces like slugs
Bacterial Nutrition Some bacteria are autotrophs and can undergo photosynthesis; others can get energy from sulfur or iron Some bacteria are heterotrophs (can be parasites or saprophytes = decomposers) Bacteria that causes plague. cyanobacteria
Human Flora • A typical human body has more than 1014 bacterial cells in its normal flora (10-fold the number of human cells) 100,000,000,000,000 bacterial cells living in and on us all the time!!
“The Good, The Bad, The Ugly” There can be different strains of bacteria. ex: E. coli is naturally found in our intestines; however, certain strains could harm us.
“The Good” Bacteria • Compete with invading microorganisms -use nutrients, secrete toxins, change pH, etc • Provide nutrients that we cannot synthesize -vitamin K made by E. coli in the large intestine
Good Bacteria • Probiotics are live microorganisms thought to be beneficial to the host organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria are the most common types of microbes used as probiotics. • Live active cultures in fermented foods= such as in yogurt, kefir, kombucha, or as dietary supplements.
“The Bad, The Ugly” Bacteria Streptococcusmutans • produce lactic acid • attacks tooth enamel, forming a cavity
“The Bad, The Ugly” Bacteria Heliobacterpylori • can live in stomach • cause of ulcers Attachment: The Helicobacter pylori enter the stomach and attach to the protective mucus lining of the stomach wall. The bacteria are able to survive in the strongly acid environment of the stomach because they excrete the enzyme urease which neutralized the acidic environment of the stomach by converting urea into the basic ammonia and buffer bicarbonate. Inside the mucus lining of the stomach wall, the bacteria cannot be killed by the bodies immune system. Toxin production: The Helicobacter pylori produce toxins such as vaculating cytotoxin A (VAC A) that cause the cells in the lining of the stomach to die. This allows the bacteria to better access of nutrients as it decreases the competition from stomach lining cells. Cell Invasion: The bacteria invade the protective inner lining of the stomach so that they can be protected from immune system. The bacteria then kill the cells that they invade which creates holes in the mucus lining of the stomach, causing the formation of ulcers. Additionally, the substances released by the bacteria during the invasion, hurt the stomach cells ability to absorb calories from food in the stomach.
“The Ultra Bad, The Ultra Ugly” Bacteria • Cholera (Vibriocholerae) • Tuberculosis (Mycobacteriumtuberculosis) • Pneumonia (Streptococcuspneumoniae) • Lyme Disease (Borreliaburgdorferi) • Ulcers (Helicobacterpylori) • Bubonic Plague (Yersiniapestis) • Tetanus (Clostridiumtetani) • Whooping Cough (Bordetellapertussis)
Protists The “Junk Drawer”
Protists(the Junk Drawer Kingdom) • Unicellular (except some algae and some seaweed) • Eukaryotes • Some heterotrophs and some autotrophs • Weird things that don’t fit the definitions of the other Kingdoms Ulva
Protist Disease: Amoebic dysenterya.k.a. Montezuma’s Revenge Amoeba histolytica
Protist Disease: Giardiasis/Beaver Fevera.k.a. Hiker’s Diarrhea Giardia
Protist Disease: African Sleeping Sickness Trypanosoma Trypanosoma is carried by the tse tse fly.
Protist Disease: Malaria Mosquitoes carry Plasmodium Plasmodium
Protist Disease: Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma
There are animal-like, fungus-like, and plant-like protists.…they are weird!! Like the stuff in your junk drawer that doesn’t seem to belong anywhere else… misfits of the other kingdoms.
Three Common Protists… Euglena (euglenoid) Paramecium (ciliate) Amoeba (sarcodine)
Fungi Kingdom The Kingdom Fungi includes some of the most important organisms. • By breaking down dead organic material, they continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems. • Many live in mutualistic relationships with tree roots sharing water and nutrients and support systems. • And some are just tasty!!
Fungi All fungi are: • Eukaryotes • Heterotrophs • Most are multicellular (except yeast) • Have cell walls (chitin) • Sessile (can’t move) Unicellular (yeast) Multicellular