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MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

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MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

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  1. MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Server Administration (Exam #70-646) Chapter 15 Managing System Reliability and Availability

  2. Learning Objectives • Understand general problem-solving strategies • Resolve boot problems • Understand Emergency Management Services • Restore Server Roles, Active Directory, and GPOs • Configure shadow copies MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  3. Learning Objectives (cont’d.) • Understand failover clustering • Use and configure Event Viewer • Troubleshoot network connectivity • Remotely administer a server using Remote Desktop • Remotely administer multiple servers using Remote Server Administration Tools MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  4. General Problem-Solving Strategies • Develop effective troubleshooting strategies • General strategies • Understand how a server and the network interact • Train your users to help you solve problems • Solve problems step by step • Track problems and solutions MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  5. Understanding How Servers and the Network Interact • Network diagram elements • Servers and any mainframes • Workstations and network printers • Wireless network devices • Cabled network devices • Telecommunications links • Wireless links • Remote links • Building locations MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  6. Understanding How Servers and the Network Interact (cont’d.) Figure 15-1 Sample network diagram Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  7. Training Users to Help • Train users to be your partners in reporting problems: • Save work at the first sign of a problem • Record information about a problem as problem is occurring • Report any protocol information • Quickly report a problem by telephone, or by voice mail if you cannot be reached immediately • Avoid sending e-mail about urgent problems MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  8. Solving Problems Step by Step • Get as much information as possible • Record error message • Determine if anyone else is experiencing problem • Check Windows Server 2008 event logs • Use Performance Monitor, Reliability Monitor, Data Collector Sets, Task Manager, Server Manager, and the Computer Management tool • Check for power interruptions MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  9. Solving Problems Step by Step (cont’d.) • Define the problem • Determine possible solutions • Consider best or most likely solutions • May be the simplest ones • Determine how solution will affect users • Implement solution • Continue monitoring server • Ensure there are no further problems MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  10. Tracking Problems and Solutions • Keep log of all network problems and their solutions • Help desk system • Application software • Maintain information on computer systems, user questions, problem solutions, and other information • Members of organization can reference • Accumulate information on solutions • Keep a change log MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  11. Resolving Boot Problems • Common causes of boot failures include: • Disk failure on drive or drives containing system and boot files • Corrupted partition table • Corrupted boot file • Corrupted master boot record • Disk read error • First step • Power off the computer and try rebooting • Rebooting resets CPU registers MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  12. Troubleshooting by Using Safe Mode • Safe Mode • Boots the server using the most generic default settings • Only services needed to boot a basic configuration • Further troubleshoot problem • To access Advanced Boot Options menu: • Reboot the computer • Press F8 • Select the option you want to use (Safe Mode) • Press Enter MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  13. Table 15-1 Advanced Boot Options menu options MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  14. Troubleshooting by Using Safe Mode (cont’d.) • Enable Boot Logging option • Create a log that you can later check for problems • Safe Mode with Command Prompt option • Useful when you can solve a problem by executing a command • Directory Services Restore Mode for Active Directory • Restore damaged files and folders • Activity 15-1: Booting into Safe Mode • Objective: Learn how to boot into Safe Mode MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  15. Troubleshooting by Using the Installation DVD • Windows Server 2008 installation DVD provides: • Windows Complete PC Restore • Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool • Command Prompt • Windows Complete PC Restore • Create a VSS full backup using Windows Server Backup tool • System state data includes operating system: • Plus extra components and information that reflect currently configured state of server MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  16. Troubleshooting by Using the Installation DVD (cont’d.) • Windows Complete PC Restore (cont’d.) • All system state data is backed up as a group • Can use wbadmin to create a system state backup • To restore from system state backup: • Use wbadmin start systemstaterecovery command • Perform full restore when you cannot get the server to boot • Windows Backup tool is unavailable MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  17. Troubleshooting by Using the Installation DVD (cont’d.) • Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool • Available from Repair your computer option on the Windows Server 2008 installation DVD • Test RAM in your computer • Activity 15-2: Performing Memory Diagnostics • Objective: Learn how to test RAM MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  18. Troubleshooting by Using the Installation DVD (cont’d.) • Using the Command Prompt • Repair disk problem or copy a critical file back to server • Start in \Sources folder on Windows Server 2008 installation DVD • Activity 15-3: Using the Command Prompt • Objective: Learn how to access the command prompt from the Windows Server 2008 installation DVD MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  19. Troubleshooting by Using the Installation DVD (cont’d.) Table 15-2 Sample command prompt commands MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  20. General Tips for Fixing Boot Problems Table 15-3 Troubleshooting boot problems MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  21. Table 15-3 Troubleshooting boot problems (cont’d.) MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  22. Table 15-4 Troubleshooting boot problems associated with Stop messages MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  23. General Tips for Fixing Boot Problems (cont’d.) Table 15-4 Troubleshooting boot problems associated with Stop messages (cont’d.) MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  24. Emergency Management Services • Emergency Management Services (EMS) • Connect a terminal to a serial port • “Out-of-band” connection • Don’t need network or display drivers • Must be enabled in the boot settings of computer: • Before problem occurs MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  25. Restoring Server Roles, Active Directory, and GPOs • Sometimes necessary to restore: • Server roles • Active Directory • GPOs MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  26. Restoring Server Roles • If server role corrupted: • Try booting server into Advanced Boot Options menu • Use Last Known Good Configuration (advanced) option on Advanced Boot Options menu • Go back to previous configuration MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  27. Restoring Active Directory • Active Directory can become corrupted • Completely restore Active Directory • Advanced Boot Options menu • Offers Directory Services Restore Mode option • Use wbadmin command • Restore system state data • Nonauthoritative restore • Restore system state data MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  28. Restoring Active Directory (cont’d.) • Tombstones • Active Directory objects that have been intentionally deleted • Only flagged as deleted • Retained for a specific period • Tombstone lifetime • Not restored by nonauthoritative restore • Retained as Active Directory objects flagged as deleted • Must use authoratative restore to restore tombstones MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  29. Restoring a Group Policy Object • GPO can be restored after it has been deleted • Use Group Policy Management MMC snap-in • General steps for restoring a GPO • Open Group Policy Management MMC snap-in • Right click Group Policy Objects container • Click Manage Backups • Browse to GPO storage location • Select GPO to restore and click Restore • Close Manage Backups window and Group Policy Management tool MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  30. Configuring Shadow Copies • Shadow copy • Quick copy made of a shared folder at regular intervals • Default intervals • 7:00 AM and noon Monday through Friday • Can be reconfigured for different times • Configure shadow copies with Computer Management tool • On Administrative Tools menu • Use revert capability • Restore an entire volume to an earlier point in time MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  31. Redundancy through Clustering • Failover clustering • Configuring multiple computers to appear to work as one computer • Other computers in cluster take over: • When one or more computers in the cluster fails or cannot be reached • Offered in: • Windows Server 2008 Enterprise and Datacenter Editions MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  32. Redundancy through Clustering (cont’d.) • Involves using one of four quorum models • Node Majority • Node and Disk Majority • Node and File Share Majority • No Majority: Disk Only MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  33. Using and Configuring Event Viewer • Event Viewer • Houses the event logs • Record information about all types of server events • Divided into three general categories: • Windows logs • Applications and services logs • Microsoft logs MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  34. Figure 15-10 Event Viewer Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  35. Using and Configuring Event Viewer (cont’d.) • Logs for reporting general operating system and software application events • System log • Security log • Application log • Setup log • Admin logs • Give the system administrator information about a specific problem and its causes • May suggest how to solve problem MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  36. Using and Configuring Event Viewer (cont’d.) • Operational log • Tracks occurrences of specific operations • Analytic logs • Relate to how programs are operating • Typically used by application or system programmers • Debug logs • Used by application developers to help trace program problems MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  37. Viewing Log Events • Log events displayed in Event Viewer • Icon indicates the seriousness of event • Each log displays descriptive information about individual events • Open Event Viewer from: • Administrative Tools menu • MMC snap-in • Computer Management tool • Server Manager MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  38. Using the Event Viewer Filter Option • Filter option • Locate a problem quickly • Filter events on the basis of: • When the event was logged • Event level • Log • Source of the event • Task category of the event MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  39. Using the Event Viewer Filter Option (cont’d.) • Filter events on the basis of (cont’d.): • Keywords • User • Computer • Date range • Time of day range MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  40. Maintaining Event Logs • Establish how you want logs maintained • Methods for limiting logs • Size each log to prevent it from filling too quickly • Overwrite oldest events when log is full • Archive log when it is full • Clear log manually • Options to save and clear individual logs also available • Activity 15-4: Using Event Viewer • Objective: Use Event Viewer to view system log events MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  41. Using Log Subscriptions • Collect event log information from many computers onto one computer • New feature • Collect and filter information from all servers • Display it in Event Viewer on one “collector computer” MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  42. Troubleshooting Connectivity • Use of duplicate IP addresses • Common problem • Use command-line tools and graphical tools for troubleshooting Windows Server 2008 connectivity MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  43. Command-Line Tools • Some TCP/IP utilities have IP troubleshooting tools built in • ipconfig command • Test IP address of a Windows computer • ping utility • Poll for presence of another TCP/IP computer • netstat utility • Provides information about TCP and UDP connectivity MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  44. Command-Line Tools (cont’d.) Table 15-5 Windows Server 2008, Windows 7, Vista, and XP diagnostic commands for TCP/IP connectivity MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  45. Command-Line Tools (cont’d.) • netstat -e command • Quick indication of the number of transmission errors and discarded packets detected at computer’s NIC • Activity 15-5: Using TCP/IP Connectivity Troubleshooting Tools • Objective: Learn how to use nbtstat and netstat MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  46. Graphical Tools • Network and Sharing Center • Disable and then enable connection • Disabling the connection (or rebooting) • Resets NIC and the TCP/IP connectivity • View GUI representation of network • Show if network connectivity problems exist between your server and network or Internet • Use Network and Sharing Center to diagnose a specific connection MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  47. Remotely Administering a Server • Remote Desktop client • Remotely access and manage server through dial-up line and via a RAS or VPN server • Configure Remote Desktop using System Properties dialog box from: • Server Manager • System applet in Control Panel • Make sure you have configured a strong password MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  48. Remotely Administering a Server (cont’d.) • Activity 15-6: Configuring to Enable Remote Access through Remote Desktop • Objective: Enable Access to Windows Server 2008 through Remote Desktop Figure 15-20 System Properties dialog box Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  49. Remote Server Administration Tools • Manage multiple servers from one Windows Server 2008 server • Offered through Server Manager Remote Administration Tools • Tools subset automatically installed with the Web Service (IIS) role • Or install Remote Server Administration Tools through Server Manager • Can remotely manage both Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003 servers MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

  50. Remote Server Administration Tools (cont’d.) • Use Event Viewer • View logs on a remote server • Use the Reliability and Performance Monitor • Monitor a remote server • Activity 15-7: Using the Remote Server Administration Tools • Objective: Learn how to use the Remote Server Administration Tools capability MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)