Si Se Puede: The State of Latinas/os in Education and Interventions for Equity Carlos P. Hipolito-Delgado, Ph.D. University of Colorado Denver & Jesus Jara, Senior Director of the Florida Partnership of The College Board
Overview • Introducing the community • The state of Latinas/os in education • Risk factors for the community • Interventions for equity
Who are these “Latinas/os”? • According to the U.S. Census, as of July 1, 2006: • 44.3 million Hispanics in U.S. • 14.8% of total population of U.S. • Heterogeneous population • Mexican 64.9% • Puerto Rican 9.0% • Cuban 3.4% • Salvadoran 3.1% • Dominican 2.7%
But What Shall I Call Them? • The name game • Hispanic • Latina/o • Chicana/o • The “a/o” convention • Depends where you are • Depends on ethnic identity and acculturation • Depends on social construction • So why did you choose Latina/o?
The State of Latinas/os in Education Themes to be Cognizant of: • Growth in numbers • Persistent gaps • NAEP • SAT scores • AP scores • Steps toward equity • Graduation rates • Dropout rates • AP participation
Latinas/os and the SAT • Latinos represent a growing percentage of SAT takers • Still under-represented • Gap in scores as compared to national average • Critical reading > 40points • Mathematics > 49 points • Writing > 40 points • Gap in scores as compared to Whites • Critical reading > 60points • Mathematics > 65 points • Writing > 65 points
Latinas/os and AP • College Board reports equity for Latinas/os based on percentage of students taking AP as compared to 2006 class. • Results can be slightly misleading when Latinas/o make up 7.8% of Calculus AB, 4.6% of Calculus BC, and are under 8% of participants in most science based topics. • It should also be noted that Latinas/os are 53% of Spanish Language and 75.1% of Spanish Literature participants.
Latinas/os and AP • Note that the total number of AP Exams earning grades of 3 or higher, as taken by the class of 2006 across their entire high school years: 980,969 • Meaning that Latinas/os make of 10.9% of AP exam scores of 3 or higher.
Latinas/os and Dropout • Significant improvement from 1972 to present, with most significant change since 1990. • Large gaps still exist between Latinas/o and general population. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2007). The Condition of Education 2007 (NCES 2007-064), Table 23-1.
Latinas/os and College Going Rates • Steady increase in college going rates • However, Latinas/os are more likely to enroll in 2 year institutions • Latinas/os are also much less likely to possess a bachelors degree
Risk Factors for Latinas/os • Poverty • 21.7% of Latinas/os live in poverty • 28.9% of Latinas/os under 18 live in poverty • Rothstein (2004) tells us that SES explains most of the achievement gap • ELL • More likely to drop out, represent about 40% of Latina/o drop outs (Fry, 2003). • Larger gap in test scores • Foreign born • Higher dropout rate • Lower test scores • Undocumented face difficulty with funding higher education • School context
Risk Factors for Latinas/os • High schools that Latinas/os attend more likely to have: • Larger enrollments (56% attend schools with 1,800 students or more) • Be inner city (about 50% attend inner city schools) • Higher percentage of students on free or reduced lunch • Higher public to teacher ration • Why school context matters • Lee and Burkam (2003) find that students in high schools enrolling fewer than 1,500 students more often stay in school. • Lee and Smith (1997) examine how students’ test score gains in mathematics and reading during high school are influenced by the size of the high school they attend. They find that the ideal size for a high school in terms of student learning is between 600 and 900 students. • Schools in urban areas and with higher student-teacher ratios have higher dropout rates (Rumberger & Thomas, 2000).
Interventions for Equity • In 2000, FLDOE forged a Partnership with the College Board and school districts across the state of Florida • In 2004, The Florida Legislature signed into law “The Florida Partnership for Minority and Underrepresented Student Achievement Act” Florida Statute 1007.35 • Counselor Leadership Conference • Closing the Gaps in Success for ALL Students • Reduce inequity in the classroom: • Access – opening the door • Attainment - reaching the benchmark • Achievement – mastering rigor
Counselors Skill Training • Leadership Culture • Accelerating Achievement • Tools for Creating Rigorous Schedules • Equity • Cultural Competency • Team/Collaboration • Data, Data, Data • Accountability
Evaluating Equity Access Equitable enrollment Attainment Attendance rates Drop out rates Promotion/Retention rates Special Education rates Gifted and Talented Graduation rates College-going rates AP, and other rigorous course enrollment rates PSAT, SAT, ACT, AP test taking rates Discipline - suspension and/or expulsion rates Culture and climate ratings Achievement PSAT, SAT or ACT scores AP test scores State test scores – FCAT proficient or better GPA’s
Equitable Schools EX: AP Programs Achievement = Equitable Grades and AP Exam Scores Access = Equitable Enrollment Attainment = Equitable Completion and Exams Taken
Success in Florida • There was a 9.6% increase of SAT test takers in Florida • Florida continues to outpace the nation • FL CR +3 US -2 • FL Math +1 US -1 • 20.7% increase of Hispanic students taking the SAT compared to 14.8% nationwide • Florida’s Hispanic students continue to outperform their counterparts in all sections of the SAT
Advanced Placement and NAEP Success • For the second year in a row, Florida experienced the greatest one year increase of AP Exam Test Takers • For the second year in a row, Florida had the largest one year increase for Hispanic AP Test Takers • Florida’s Hispanic students rank second in the nation in the number of students scoring Proficient and above on the 2007 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Grade Eight Writing assessment. • Overall, Florida improved its ranking to ninth in the nation for students scoring Proficient and above; two places higher than in 2002 and 16 places higher than in 1998.
Research: • US Department of Education (2002) report stated that education continues to operate “largely on the basis of ideology and professional consensus. • Policy makers today want schools to make decisions more rationally based on problems “uncovered by empirical data and… programs proven effective by research to raise student achievement” (Masell, 2001) • Schools should collect data on the context of their mission; this would help them move away from reliance on one test to determine their merit and engage educators in a process of reflection and inquiry. (Petrides & Guiney 2002)