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Imposed Group Structures

Imposed Group Structures

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Imposed Group Structures

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  1. Imposed Group Structures Chapter 9

  2. Overview • Background Information • Structural Perspective • Input Variables • Types of Imposed Group Structures • Structures that restricts who communicates • Possible Networks for Groups • Measuring Interaction & Quantifying Structures • Distance, Summed Distance, Position Centrality, Network Centrality • Structures that control how group members communicate with one another. • Communication media vs. FtF • Types of Channels • Theories (social presence, media richness, media effects) • Mediated Group Discussion • Computer Conferencing • Emotional Content

  3. Background Information • Norms and roles are STRUCTURES that form within groups • Organizations often impose structures (outside forces) on groups • Types of Imposed Group Structures (IGS) • WHO communicates • HOW group members communicate • Structural Perspective • IGS’s are treated as INPUT VARIABLES • RQ: Which structures best meet different organizational needs?

  4. Relevant Research Questions • RQ1: Which structures best meet different organizational needs? • RQ2: How do imposed group structures affect group process? • RQ3: How do imposed group structures affect group output?

  5. Methodology • Combine theoretical and practical concerns • Basic/Applied Research Grid • Pasteur’s Quadrant

  6. Types of Imposed Group Structures • Structures that restricts who communicates • Possible Networks for Groups • Measuring Interaction & Quantifying Structures • Distance, Summed Distance, Position Centrality, Network Centrality • Structures that control how group members communicate with one another. • Communication media vs. FtF • Types of Channels • Theories (social presence, media richness, media effects)

  7. Possible Networks for Five-Person Groups • Five Possible “Structures” (p. 2) • Wheel (hierarchy) • Y • Circle • Chain • COMCON (completely connected) • Direct and Indirect Communication Links • Measuring Interaction and Quantifying a Group’s Network of Communication

  8. Four Important Indices Used to Evaluate Communication Networks • Distance – number of links between any two members • Summed Distance – the distances it takes for one member to reach all other members in the group (refers only to each individual member; structure of a group is based only on this criterion) • Position Centrality – how central or peripheral a single group member’s position is in the network (member with lower summed distance is central) • Network Centrality – sum of all members’ position centrality scores (centralized vs. diffused groups) Differences in position centrality lead to differences in process and output variables. Network centrality also affects group process and output.

  9. Research Conclusions • The more centralized the group, the better it performs (speed, accuracy, and group process). • The more centralized the group, the more often and more unanimously the members judged that the group had a leader. • Central members of centralized networks send more messages and like their jobs the most. • Levels of satisfaction increase as groups become more centralized. • The choice concerning whether to restrict the structure of who-can-speak-to-whom depends on the GROUP’s GOAL (very important) • In a centralized group network the competent person is the most central member • Task complexity determines which group organizations function best. • Problem solving experience improves group organization • Groups can plan an efficient structure for themselves • Groups try to maintain their imposed networks if those structures are effective.

  10. Structures that control how group communication occurs . . . • Mediated Group Discussion • Types of Channels • Audio and Visual • Visual • Audio • Neither • Theories • Social Presence Theory (Short, Williams, & Christie • Media Effects (Theories) • Media Richness Theory (Daft & Lengel) • Social Influence Theory (Walther)

  11. Computer Conferencing • Traits • Types • Application of Theory • Computer Conferencing & Social Presence Theory • Emotional Content of Electronic Communication • “Cues-filtered out” • Social Influence Theory (Walther) • Low Social Presence Results

  12. Summary • Background Information • Structural Perspective • Types of Imposed Group Structures • Structures that restricts who communicates • Possible Networks for Groups • Measuring Interaction & Quantifying Structures • Distance, Summed Distance, Position Centrality, Network Centrality • Structures that control how group members communicate with one another. • Communication media vs. FtF • Types of Channels • Theories (social presence, media richness, media effects) • Mediated Group Discussion • Computer Conferencing • Emotional Content