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What Is Stress?

What Is Stress?

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What Is Stress?

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  1. What Is Stress? Chapter 1 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  2. Chapter Overview • Important researchers of stress and their contributions • Types of stress • Stress reactivity: general adaptation syndrome • Defining stress: eustress and distress © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  3. Before we begin, ask yourself… • What stresses you out? • How do you deal with stress? © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  4. Before we formally define stress, let’s take a look at some influential researchers and how they contributed to our knowledge of stress. © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  5. Walter Cannon • First to describe the effects of acute stress • Termed this stress reaction as the fight-or-flight response • A primitive response that quickly increases heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  6. Hans Selye • Studied the effects of long-term (chronic) stress • Summarized his findings by proposing a three-phase process called the general adaptation syndrome • alarm reaction • stage of resistance • stage of exhaustion © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  7. Other Influential Researchers • Simeons -- related evolution to psychosomatic disease (twentieth century concept) • Wolff, LeShan, Engel -- studied illness, disease, and stress • Friedman & Rosenman -- identified relationship between stress and coronary heart disease • Simonton -- imagery and cancer therapy © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  8. Techniques and concepts have developed over the years, including: • Relaxation response (Benson) • Autogenic training (Schultz, Luthe) • Progressive muscular relaxation, bracing, imagery (Jacobson) • Biofeedback (Budzynski) © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress Theory • Several theories explain the causes of stress: • Life events theory: situation requires more resources than are available • Hardiness theory: one’s attitude toward the events determines stress • Social support theory: insufficient social support for responding to event © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  10. The Stressor • Stressor (stimulus) • biological • psychological • sociological • philosophical • Stress reactivity (fight-or-flight response) • All effects are based on duration and degree of one’s physiological reaction © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  11. Strain • Strains are the outcomes of reactivity • Three types • Physical • Psychological • Behavioral © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender Differences in Reactivity • Females • Exhibit nurturing activities • Use social groups more than males • Males • More fight-or-flight response © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress Reactivity © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  14. Definition of Stress • Mason described the different uses of the word stress: • Stimulus • Response • Whole spectrum of interacting factors (Lazarus) • Stimulus-response interaction © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  15. Is the glass half full or half empty? • A situation can be stressful or not -- it all depends on your perception of the event • A response to stress can be effective or not -- it depends on your resources and coping strategies • Refer to Table 1.2 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between stress and illness…. © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  17. Goals for Stress Management • Do not eliminate all stress • Use as a motivator for peak performance • Stress can be useful, stimulating, and welcome • Limit harmful effects © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

  18. What Is Stress? © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.