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Chapter 7: Gradient Echo Imaging Methods

Chapter 7: Gradient Echo Imaging Methods

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Chapter 7: Gradient Echo Imaging Methods

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  1. Chapter 7: Gradient Echo Imaging Methods Mark D. Herbst, MD, PhD

  2. Two Main Imaging Methods • Spin Echo – uses 180 degree refocusing RF pulse to refocus spins and form an echo that is captured and put into k-space • Gradient Echo – uses gradient pulse to form the echo • Gradient Echo – abbreviated GE, or GRE for Gradient Recalled Echo, or FFE for Fast Field Echo, or SAGE (small angle GE)

  3. Advantages of GE Methods • Faster than SE (spin echo) because of short TRs and short TEs • Shows flowing blood as bright good for MRA • Good for functional MRI • Good for subtle hemorrhage (microhemorrhage technique or magnetic susceptibility technique) • Can be combined with SE to produce very fast images (GRASE=gradient and spin echo)

  4. Disadvantages of GE Methods • Can have too much metal artifact • GE gives T2*-weighted images (“T-two-star”) instead of T2WI • Need to be aware of fat and water being in-phase or out-of-phase at interfaces between water and fat

  5. Spin Echo

  6. Gradient Echo

  7. Gradient Echo

  8. Spoiled Gradient Echo • “Spoiling” refers to the destruction of any T2 contrast in the image, leaving you with a fast way of getting a T1WI using a gradient technique. The “spoiler pulse” completely dephases the spins in the xy plane, removing any evidence of T2 or T2* contrast.

  9. GRASS and Spoiled GRASS

  10. Spin Echo

  11. Effect of Flip Angle on Signal

  12. Effect of Flip Angle on Net Magnetization Vector

  13. Effect of Flip Angle on Longitudinal and Transverse Magnetization

  14. Effect of Flip Angle on Contrast

  15. Effect of TR on M

  16. GRASE

  17. Spin Echo Planar Imaging (EPI)

  18. Gradient Echo Planar Imaging (EPI)