Prevention of Mosquito-borne Diseases Central Health Education Unit June 2007
Prevention of mosquito-borne diseases Work of the Government • To prevent mosquito-borne diseases effectively relies on the support and co-operation of both public and private sectors with the government.
Work of the Government Publicity and Health Education • Provide health education on personal protection against mosquito-borne diseases for general public. • Publicize personal protection against mosquito-borne diseases for travellers. • Latest updates on dengue fever for healthcare workers through periodicals, mails and internet.
Disease surveillance • Dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis and Malaria have been brought into one of the statutory notifiable diseases. • web-based Central Notification Office (CENO On-line)
Disease surveillance • Contact tracing, epidemiological investigations on disease outbreaks. • Liaise with relevant department, e.g. Food and Environmental Department for following up control measures. • Collaborate with other departments and Hospital Authority in formulating response measures to prevent local spread of Dengue fever.
Disease surveillance • Maintain close liaison with nearby regions and oversea countries. • Make announcement to general public on reported cases and disease situation of nearby regions and remind public of preventive measures.
Prevention of mosquito-borne diseases Personal Protection
Personal Protection The best protection is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes by paying attention to the following: • Avoid staying in dark, outdoor places such as brushwood, pavilions, or the shade of a tree during the hours when Aedes albopictus is active.
Personal Protection • Avoid going out in the hours when Aedes albopicuts feed or wear light-coloured, long-sleeves clothing and trousers.
Personal Protection • Install mosquito nets to doors and windows so that mosquitoes can’t get in.
Personal Protection • Accommodation should have air-conditioners or mosquito nets • Hang mosquito screens around your bed • Use of mosquito coil
Personal ProtectionChoosing the insect repellents • DEET containing products, such as repellents, anti-mosquito patches and spray are generally most effective to avoid mosquito bites. • Citronella, Soybean oil and 3-[N-Butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid containing products also have mosquito repellent effects. • Portable ultrasonic devices are less reliable when compared with DEET.
Safety tips on using repellents that contain DEET (1) • Avoid applying high DEET concentration products (i.e. >35%) • Always read and follow the instruction label carefully before using repellents.
Safety tips on using repellents that contain DEET (2) • As rare reports about application of repellents with DEET associated with seizures in young children, therefore the low concentration product (10%DEET) should be used on children. • DEET is not recommended for use on infants less than 2 months of age. They should use mosquito net for health protection (e.g. infant carrier draped with elastic edge mosquito net).
Safety tips on using repellents that contain DEET (3) • Never use repellents over wounds or irritated skin. • Apply the repellent on exposed skin surfaces only or on top of clothing. Do not use under clothing. Do not attach the anti-mosquito patches directly on the skin if it is specifically for clothing. • Wash repellent-treated skin with soap and water when you come indoors. • When using sprays, do not spray directly on face spray on hands first and then apply to face. Do not apply to eyes or mouth.
Prevention of mosquito-borne diseasesElimination of Mosquitoes The most effective way to eliminate mosquitoes is to： • Keep the environment clean. • Remove stagnant water so that mosquitoes can’t breed.
Possible Breeding Grounds of Aedes Albopictus (1) • Artificial containers: • Vases, saucers underneath flower pots, trays underneath air-conditioners, buckets jars and jugs of earthenware, cement troughs, dumped tyres and solid wastes such as cans, disposable cups and bowls, and plastic bags.
Possible Breeding Grounds of Aedes Albopictus (2) Natural containers: The hollow space inside a bamboo, hollows of a tree and the rachis of a leaf.
Elimination of Mosquitoes • Cover water containers tightly so that mosquitoes can’t get in to lay eggs.
Elimination of Mosquitoes • Dispose of domestic wastes, empty bottles, cans and lunch boxes properly into a covered binto prevent the accumulation of stagnant water.
Elimination of Mosquitoes • Change water for vases and aquatic plants at least once a week, leaving no water under the pots or in the bottom saucers. • Scrub the container surfaces thoroughly to prevent mosquito eggs sticking on them.
Elimination of Mosquitoes • Remove or puncture any dumped tyres to prevent the accumulation of stagnant water.
Elimination of Mosquitoes Keep ditches free from blockage.
Elimination of Mosquitoes Fill up uneven ground surfaces to prevent the accumulation of stagnant water.
Elimination of Mosquitoes • Remove stagnant water immediately if mosquitoes are found to be breeding. Use environmentally friendly insecticides such as lavicidal oil if necessary.
Elimination of Mosquitoes • In cultivation ponds, water tanks or large containers, biological controls such as keeping fishes to eat mosquito larvae would be a good option.
Mosquito Elimination Checklist (1) • Are containers and other items where water could accumulate disposed of properly? (For example, throwing empty cans, foam rubber boxes, cups and bottles into a covered bin) • Are water containers covered properly?
Mosquito Elimination Checklist (2) • Are ditches free from blockage？ • Are containers with stagnant water cleaned regularly？(For example, vases, saucers underneath flower pots, water storage device of an air-conditioner, water tanks and pools） • Are uneven ground surfaces filled to prevent the accumulation of stagnant water？
Seek medical consultation immediately • Having been bitten by a mosquito and displaying symptoms afterwards • Falling ill, especially having a fever within one month after you have returned from abroad
Enquiries/Websites • Centre for Health Protection, Department of Health (www.chp.gov.hk) • Hong Kong Traveller’s Health Service, Department of Health (www.travelhealth.gov.hk/eindex.html) • 24-Hour Health Education Hotline, Department of Health (2833 0111) • Food and Environmental Hygiene Department Hotline: 2868 0000 Website :www.fehd.gov.hk
Elimination of mosquito is the most effective prevention strategy Let’s remove stagnant water and eliminate mosquitoes