Wash hands with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds. • Clean all surfaces and utensils with hot water and soap, including cutting boards, counter tops, peelers and knives that will touch fresh fruits or vegetables before and after food preparation.
Rinse fresh fruits and vegetables under running tap water, including those with skins and rinds that are not eaten. Scrub vegetables, like potatoes, with a clean vegetable brush while rinsing with running tap water.
SEPARATE raw, cooked, and ready- to-eat foods while shopping, preparing or storing foods.
… and a separate one for fresh produce. Use different cutting boards Use one cutting boardfor raw meat, poultry and seafood …
What is Foodborne Illness? • A sickness that results from eating foods that are contaminated with pathogens. • Common symptoms include: diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, headache, and vomiting. • Consequences can be severe and may lead to hospitalization or even death.
How many people in the United States get sick each year from food they eat? • 76 million people become sick from foodborne illnesses • 5,000 people die
Fever Diarrhea Upset stomach OOPS! Dehydration (sometimes severe)from losing bodily fluids Vomiting Some possible signs and symptoms
FOODS HELD AT DANGER ZONE 41 - 135 Max: 2 hours
UNDERCOOKED FOODS EGGS SHOULD BE COOKED TO A MINIMUM OF 145 for at least 15 seconds. If hot-held, 155 for 15 seconds.
You can’t stick a thermometer into a fried or scrambled egg. How do you know when it’s done? Eggs are safely cooked when the yolks and whites are firm and not runny.
Unsafe food is caused by: Chemical Contaminants Physical Contaminants Biological Contaminants
Biological Contaminants Viruses Parasites Fungi Bacteria
Biological: Bacteria/Pathogens • Microorganisms that can cause disease.
TCS foods Foods requiring TIME and TEMPERATURE CONTROL For SAFETY
high in moisture cooked foods
LOW IN ACIDITY
FAT TOM F.A.T.T.O.M. explains what allows foodborne pathogens to grow.
F OOD Moist protein-rich foods, such as meat, milk, eggs and fish, are potentially hazardous. That is, they are most likely to cause foodborne illness because they are a food source for pathogenic bacteria and can support growth of these bacteria.
CIDITY A Bacteria grow best in an environment that is neutral or slightly acidic. Most bacterial growth is inhibited in very acidic conditions. That is why acidic foods, like vinegar and fresh fruits (especially citrus), seldom provide a favorable climate for pathogenic bacteria. Most bacteria will not grow at pH levels below 4.6 because the environment is too acidic.
Pathogenic microorganisms reproduce by cell division. One becomes two. Two become four. Four becomes eight. When foods are held in the TEMPERATURE DANGER ZONE (TDZ) (40° to 140°F) for more than two hours, pathogens will have multiplied to such high levels in the food, eating this food will make people ill rapidly. T I M E
A multiplication quiz The number of bacteria can double in 20 minutes! How many bacteria will grow from1 BACTERIAleft at room temperature 7 hours?
Answer: 2,097,152! Refrigerate perishable foods within TWO hours!
T EMPERATURE Microorganisms grow and reproduce quickly between the temperatures of 40° and 140°F (5° to 57° c) . One important rule of food safety is to limit time that foods are in the DANGER ZONE – NO MORE THAN 2 HOURS. Keep foods refrigerated (below 41°F) until it is time to cook. Cool left over foods quickly.
DANGER ZONE Bacteria multiplyrapidly between 41 – 135 F. 2 hour time limit
The TWO-hour rule Refrigerate perishable foods so TOTAL time at room temperature is less than TWO hours (Only ONE hour when temperature is above 90°F)
O • XYGEN Most microorganisms need oxygen (air) to grow. When foods such as meat, spaghetti sauce or vegetables are canned, oxygen is excluded from the environment. Therefore, growth of bacteria are controlled and the food is preserved. Such foods are shelf stable and do not require refrigeration until they are opened.
OISTURE M Bacteria, yeast, and molds multiply rapidly with a high water activity level. Meat, produce and soft cheeses are examples of foods with a high moisture content. Foods preserved with salt or sugar, such as beef jerky or jams and jellies have a lower moisture content because salt and sugar deprive microorganisms of water and inhibit their reproduction. Pathogens have difficulty growing in foods such as dry noodles, flours, candies and crackers.