Higher/Int 2/Int 1 Physical Education Skills and Techniques
Skill • Has a purpose – • - shooting to score a goal • - dribble to find space or go past someone • - attacking shot badminton – to get opponent away from the net • - vault – to cross a bit of apparatus
Technique • To achieve your purpose Skill Technique • shooting – layup, set, jump, hook, dunk • Dribbling – • Attacking shot • Vault -
Complex -----------Simple Skills can be simple or complex Complex skills are physically demanding Have lots of parts (subroutines) Needs high levels of coordination Needs timing Complicated/changing/challenging environment Need to make judgements
Simple skills • Few parts (subroutines) • Physically undemanding • Little coordination needed • Few judgements • Simple movements • Stable environment -
Open -----------------Closed • Open skills take place in a changing environment – people are moving, you are on the move, the unexpected happens and you have to react, speed changes and you are not in control of the timing • Closed skills take place at the same pace, in an environment that stays constant. It is an skill that remains constant.
Discrete-Continuous-Serial • Discrete – skills that stand alone – they do not follow another skill or have a skill comes after – high jump. • Continuous – skills that are repeated – running, cycling, front crawl • Serial – skills that are done as part of a series, overhead clear, drop shot, underarm clear smash
Home work for Wednesday-in jotter 1.Describe 2 skills in an activity. • One simple and one complex • Say why the skill was complex and why the skill was simple. 2.Take another 2 skills in an activity • One open and one closed. • Say why the skill was open and why it was closed 3. Give 3 examples of discrete skills from 3 different activities. 4. Give 3 examples of continuous skills from 3 different activities. 5. Give 3 examples of serial skills from 3 different activities.
Breaking down a skill • A skill can be broken in 3 parts • P – preparation • A – action • R - recovery
Preparation • What happens when you know what skill you have to play • - get into position/move to position • - get weight on the correct foot/part of the body • - grip with hands
Action • Performance of the skill • Hitting, kicking, pushing, throwing, pulling etc • -contact point • - timing • -transfer of weight • -direction/height/
Recovery • How the action is completed and you get into a position where you can react to the next situation. • - follow through – direction to skill/power to skill
Learning new skills • Gradual build up- lay up –break the skill into parts (very like P.A.R.) add a bit on each time. • If the action is complex then you can break it down into small bits. • Can be used with dangerous skills • Can build up the difficulty bit by bit to make more demanding • Builds confidence • Joining skills in routines – trampoline/gymnastics/triple jump
Whole – part – whole • Where the skill is less dangerous • Where the skill has not got easy to divide parts • Some experience of the skill is necessary • Swimming – practice the part – leg action and then put it into the whole action. • High jump practice arch of back, practice run up and arch, practice landing, practice whole skill
Stages of Learning • There are three stages of learning new skills. • The stages apply to everyone and to ever skill.
1st Stage • Cognitive/learning – at this stage you are learning and trying to understand what is needed. • Lots of errors • Most people pass through this stage very quickly but it depends on age, fitness levels, complexity of skill. • Need lots of general, positive feedback, in small bits.
2nd stage • Practice or Associative • This stage is characterised by linking together of the subroutines, less errors will be made and movement will be refined. • Less errors made • More specific feedback – • Less motivation needed as internal motivation takes over • You may stay in this stage and not move into the final stage.
3rd Stage • Automatic – in this stage the skill has become automatic to perform and you are now thinking of the outcome of the shot. • No or little external feedback on performance but more feedback on the outcome of skill • Less errors • You can go back to the practice stage and relearn skills.
Homework • Discuss your data collection. Are you happy that the data you collected is a true reflection of your performance. (Break your answer into discussing the collection of initial data whole performance and the collection of focused data – OHC)
Principles of effective practicethings to consider when setting up your training programme • Practices are challenging but achievable • Practices are motivational • Practice do not go on too long – boredom • Practices do not go on too long – fatique • Practices should have rest sessions built in • Practices should progress and be specific to the skills you want to improve • Practices must be enjoyable and interesting • Practices must be realistic
HomeworkDue Friday. • Describe the stages of learning. • Describe the stage of learning that you think your overhead clear is in. (use the statistics you gathered to support your answer.)
Wednesday 21st September 2011 • Go over homework. • Look at last weeks homework and mark sample answer • New work – Methods of Practice • Homework.
Methods of Practice • Shadow – To feel the movement, • get the muscles, joints and nerves ready for action • To prepare mentally for the activity. • Advantages – can slow down movement • - can stop movement • - do not need to judge flight of shuttle • - do not need to think of outcome or next shot
Feeder Drill Feeder drill – can play shots so more game like. Drills can get progressively more difficult - feed to mid court - feed to back court - feed to back hand - 2 feeders (pressure drill) You know what shot to expect so you can be ready and get into position quickly. Muscular endurance a consideration, as is boredom if practice goes on too long.
Continuous drills • Continuous drills are where the shuttle is played in a more open situation • Can be the same shot repeated (OHC – OHC) • Can be the shot played as part of a series of shots (High serve, OHC, Drop shot, underarm clear and OHC repeat) • You know what shot is coming so some of the decisions are made for you. • Less tiring on one set of muscles, more variation, less change of getting bored, can practice for longer
Adapted games • Can put a condition on the game so the shot you want to practice is used. • E.g. can only win the point after you have played 4 OHC’s, ½ court games (force use of back court), only win point with a shot that lands in tramlines. • Can practice for longer periods of time with boredom setting in.
Homework • In badminton we have been practicing skills. • i) Name a skill you have been practicing. (2) • ii) Describe the preparation, action and recovery for this shot. (2) • iii) Describe 3 separate practices you have done to work on this shot. (3) • iv) Describe why these practices were chosen.(2) • v) What was the benefit to your overall performance in badminton. (2)
Homework 1) Give a detailed account of why the development of the overhead clear is important in developing your whole badminton performance. 4 marks 2) Discuss the data you collected on your overall performance. 2 marks 3) What did you discover were the weaknesses of your overhead clear and what impact was this having on your overall performance. 4 marks
Wednesday 28th September 2011 • Revision – • New work – Feedback • - Decision making • Homework
FeedbackInformation you receive about your performance. • Must be positive • Best given immediately after • Best given in small bits • Best given in different ways – 3 is best • Best given on one aspect of the skill at a time
Internal – kinaesthetic • – Feel of the movement. • Can be achieved through shadowing practices, physical manipulation to place in the correct position. • Important to get the brain, nerves, muscles, joints all working together. • To do with timing, mental preparation etc. • Can be felt – hitting the shot perfectly.
External Feedback • Visual – someone showing you • video, picture etc • Verbal – someone telling you • teacher, peer • Written – someone writing down • observation sheet, • movement analysis • Knowledge of results - what the outcome of that skill • is. Always get this feedback.
Homework • Skills and Techniques • Question 5. – on wikispaces.