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Security Awareness

Security Awareness

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Security Awareness

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  1. Security Awareness Chapter 2 Desktop Security

  2. Objectives After completing this chapter, you should be able to do the following: • Describe the different types of software and hardware attacks • List types of desktop defenses • Explain how to recover from an attack Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  3. Attacks on Desktop Computers • Most attacks fall into two categories • Malicious software attacks • Attacks on hardware Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  4. Malicious Software Attacks • Malware • Wide variety of damaging or annoying attack software • Enters a computer system without the owner’s knowledge or consent • Primary objectives of malware • Infect a computer system with destructive software • Conceal a malicious action Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  5. Infecting Malware • Viruses • Malicious program that needs a ‘‘carrier’’ to survive • Two carriers • Program or document • User Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  6. Infecting Malware (cont’d.) • Viruses have performed the following functions: • Caused a computer to crash repeatedly • Erased files from a hard drive • Installed hidden programs, such as stolen software, which is then secretly distributed from the computer • Made multiple copies of itself and consumed all of the free space in a hard drive • Reduced security settings and allowed intruders to remotely access the computer • Reformatted the hard disk drive Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  7. Infecting Malware (cont’d.) • Types of computer viruses • File infector • Resident • Boot • Companion • Macro • Polymorphic Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  8. Infecting Malware (cont’d.) • Worms • Take advantage of a vulnerability in an application or an operating system • Enter a system • Deposit its payload • Immediately searches for another computer that has the same vulnerabiliy Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  9. Infecting Malware (cont’d.) • Different from a virus • Does not require program or user • Actions that worms have performed include • Deleting files on the computer • Allowing the computer to be remote-controlled by an attacker Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  10. Concealing Malware • Trojan horse (or just Trojan) • Program advertised as performing one activity but actually does something else • Typically executable programs that contain hidden code that attacks the computer system Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  11. Concealing Malware (cont’d.) • Rootkit • Set of software tools • Used to break into a computer, obtain special privileges to perform unauthorized functions • Goal is not to damage a computer directly • Go to great lengths to ensure that they are not detected and removed • Replace operating system commands with modified versions that are specifically designed to ignore malicious activity • Detecting a rootkit can be difficult Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  12. Concealing Malware (cont’d.) • Logic bomb • Computer program or a part of a program that lies dormant until it is triggered by a specific logical event • Once triggered, performs malicious activities • Extremely difficult to detect before they are triggered Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  13. Concealing Malware (cont’d.) Table 2-1 Famous logic bombs Course Technology/Cengage Learning Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  14. Concealing Malware (cont’d.) • Zombie • Infected ‘‘robot’’ computer • Botnet • Hundreds, thousands, or tens of thousands of zombies • Internet Relay Chat (IRC) • Used to remotely control the zombies • Number of zombies and botnets is staggering Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  15. Concealing Malware (cont’d.) Table 2-2 Uses of botnets Course Technology/Cengage Learning Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  16. Hardware Attacks • Types of hardware that is targeted includes • BIOS • USB devices • Cell phones • Physical theft of laptop computers and information Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  17. BIOS • Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) • Coded program embedded on the processor chip • Recognizes and controls different devices on the computer system • Read Only Memory (ROM) chip • Older systems • PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) chip • Newer computers • Flashing the BIOS • Reprogramming Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  18. USB Devices • USB (universal serial bus) • Small, lightweight, removable, and contain rewritable storage • Common types • USB flash memory • MP3 players • Primary targets of attacks to spread malware • Allow spies or disgruntled employees to copy and steal sensitive corporate data Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  19. USB Devices (cont’d.) • Reduce the risk introduced by USB devices • Prohibit by written policy • Disable with technology • Disable the USB in hardware • Disable the USB through the operating system • Use third-party software Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  20. Cell Phones • Portable communication devices • Rapidly replacing wired telephones • Types of attacks • Lure users to malicious Web sites • Infect a cell phone • Launch attacks on other cell phones • Access account information • Abuse the cell phone service Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  21. Physical Theft • Portable laptop computers are particularly vulnerable to theft • Data can be retrieved from a hard drive by an attacker even after its file has been deleted Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  22. Desktop Defenses • Defenses include: • Managing patches • Installing antivirus software • Using buffer overflow protection • Protecting against theft • Creating data backups Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  23. Managing Patches • Patch • Software security update intended to cover vulnerabilities that have been discovered after the program was released Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  24. Managing Patches (cont’d.) • Automatic update configuration options for most operating systems • Install updates automatically • Download updates but let me choose when to install them • Check for updates but let me choose whether to download and install them • Never check for updates Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  25. Antivirus Software • Scan a computer’s hard drive for infections • Monitor computer activity • Examine all new documents that might contain a virus • Drawback of AV software • Must be continuously updated to recognize new viruses • Should be configured to constantly monitor for viruses and automatically check for updated signature files Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  26. Buffer Overflow Protection • Buffer overflow • Occurs when a computer process attempts to store data in RAM beyond the boundaries of a fixed-length storage buffer • May cause computer to stop functioning • Windows-based system protection • Data Execution Prevention (DEP) • Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR) Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  27. Buffer Overflow Protection (cont’d.) Figure 2-4 Buffer overflow attack Course Technology/Cengage Learning Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  28. Protecting Against Theft • Applies to laptops especially • Device lock • Steel cable and a lock • Software tracking system Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  29. Creating Data Backups • Copying data from a computer’s hard drive onto other digital media • Then storing it in a secure location • Sophisticated hardware and software can back up data on a regular schedule • Personal computer users • Operating system functions • Third-party software Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  30. Creating Data Backups (cont’d.) • What information to back up • Back up only user files • Back up all files • Frequency of backups • Regular schedule • RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Drives) • Uses multiple hard disk drives for increased reliability • Several RAID configurations • Called levels Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  31. Creating Data Backups (cont’d.) Table 2-3 Types of data backups Course Technology/Cengage Learning Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  32. Creating Data Backups (cont’d.) • Backup storage media • Temporary media should not be used • Alternatives • Portable USB hard drives • Network Attached Storage (NAS) • Internet services • Disc storage Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  33. Creating Data Backups (cont’d.) • Location of backup storage • Protect against not only virus attacks but also against hardware malfunctions, user error, software corruption, and natural disasters • Backups ideally should be stored in a location away from the device that contains the information Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  34. Recovering from an Attack • Basic steps to perform • Disconnect • Identify • Disinfect • Recheck • Reinstall • Analyze Security Awareness, 3rd Edition

  35. Summary • Malicious software (malware) • Enters a computer system without the owner’s knowledge or consent • Includes a wide variety of damaging or annoying software • Infecting malware • Concealing malware • Hardware is also the target of attackers • Tactics for defending desktop systems • Basic steps to disinfect and restore a computer Security Awareness, 3rd Edition