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PSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS

PSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS

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PSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS

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  1. PSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS Dr. Ardini S Raksanagara,dr.,MPH. Public Health Department Faculty of Medicine

  2. SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVE The student will be able : • to underline psychological hazards in the workplace environment (C2)

  3. References • Suma’mur, Higene Perusahaan dan Kesehatan Kerja, CV Haji Masagung, Jakarta, 1994. page 207-211 • Levy & Wegman, Occupational Health, Recognizing and Preventing Work Related Disease. Third Edition. Little Broan and Company, Boston / NewYork/Toronto/London,2006. Chapter : 19, 20 . page 381-415, 407 • Harrington, Occupational Heath , Pocket Consultant, Blackwell Scientific Publications,1987. page 117-120 • Rosenstock, Textbook of Clinical Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Second Edition, Saunders, 2005. Chapter : 28

  4. Occupational Psychology Definition : the study of man as a worker and the study of working environment in relation to man.

  5. Occupational Psychology deal with ØTraining ØMorale ØWork study technique ØFatigue ØCommunication and consultation ØAttitude ØOpinion surveys

  6. Risk factors for behavioral and psychosomatic disorders • Environmental psychosocial risk factor • Work overload and under load, shift work, low wages, job turnover • Physical stressor • Thermal environment, noise, vibration, radiation, poor lighting • Environmental chemical stressor • Carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide, alcohol,,solvents • Social support system • Support from family, work community, community • Individual psychosocial factors • Age, sex, personality type, • inter individual relationship at work

  7. Stress • Stress is not just another word for anxiety, it also implies a range of behavioral changes

  8. Job Stress • Harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirement of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker • Occupational stress, job stress, work stress

  9. Definition related to stress

  10. Stress related symptoms ·unusual or misguide aggression ·day-dreaming ·paranoia ·disinterestedness ·illogicality ·irrational or impulsive behavior ·narrow mindedness ·indecision ·procrastination ·inability to relax

  11. Stress is causes by variety of factors which may be related to : otask orole ointrinsic environmental factors at work osocial factors ophysical factors  Stress has multiple causes

  12. Manifestations of stress : 1.Mental illness 2.Disease (Cardiovascular Disease, Gastrointestinal Disease, Diabetes, Headaches, asthma) 3.Accidents 4.Sickness, Absence & Productivity

  13. Work Stress • Effect of work stress • Sources of work stress • Working conditions play a primary role in causing job stress • Exposure to stressful working conditions direct influence on worker and safety and health

  14. Effects of work stress

  15. Sources of work stress

  16. Common workplace stressors

  17. Work stressor/job stressor 3 categories : • job/task demand : workload, shift work • Organizational factors : role conflict, role ambiguity, management style, career related concern (job insecurity, under/overpromotion, career development) • Physical conditions : excessive noise, temperature extreme, poor ventilation, inadequate lighting, ergonomic design

  18. Moderating factors Several personal and situational characteristics can modify the way individual workers exposed to work environment perceive and to react it These characteristics known as moderators • Individual factors : personal characteristics, personality style • Non work factors : family, interpersonal, financial, environmental factors (living condition)

  19. Buffer factors Factors that reduce or eliminate the effects of job stressor • Social support an individual worker from work or non work sources • Lifestyle Factors : physical fitness, exercise, nutrition habits, stress management

  20. Manifestation of work stress • Personal well being • Outcomes of organizational  productivity

  21. Components of the stress process • Stressor • Time demands, work schedule • Psychosocial task structure • Physical condition • Organization • Extra organizational • Non work sources • Outcomes • Physiologic • Psychological • Behavioral • Modifiers • Individual • Social support

  22. Pathophysiological correlates of job stress • Mechanisms that underlie the relationship between stress and disease • The direct pathway • An indirect pathway

  23. The direct pathway • Role of disregulations of the neurohormonal system (pituitary-adrenocortical axist), autonomic nervous system, immune system • Influenced by genetic factors

  24. An indirect pathway • Job –non job  adverse health effect • Rotating shift work directly influences the circadian rhythm , with resulting changes in the autonomic nervous system and the immune system

  25. Health effects of stress • Acute stress • Elevates catecholamine level • Increased heart rate and blood pressure, • Decreased plasma volume, coronary constriction • Increased lipid levels • Platelet activity, coagulation, inflammation • Chronic stress • Autonomic imbalances • Decreased cardiovascular reactivity • Neurohormonal changes • Increased lipid levels

  26. A process model of job stress and health

  27. PREVENTION & MANAGEMENT OF STRESS 1.Individual Approaches 2.Organizational Approaches

  28. Prevention and control of stress

  29. Individual approach • To educate employee about stress and its effects • To increase awareness of stress in their lives and job • To teach skill for managing or reducing the problem •  stress management technique • (relaxation, meditation, physical activity) • The role of social support : spouses, friends,

  30. Mental health issues in the workplace • Mental disorders • Depression • Anxiety, five related disorders generalised anxiety panic disorder phobias obsessive compulsive disorders traumatic stress disorders • Alcohol abuse • Schizophrenis

  31. Psychosomatic problems • Sleep problems • Personality disorders

  32. Thankyou