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Stoichiometry

Stoichiometry

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Stoichiometry

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  1. Stoichiometry

  2. Stoichiometry comes from the Greek words for “element” and “measure”. Stoichiometry takes information for one element/compound in a reaction and allows for the calculation of the amount of a different element/compound in the same reaction. Obviously the place to start is…

  3. Predict and write a balanced chemical equation.

  4. Predict and write a balanced chemical equation. Start a RR track and convert the given information to moles (if not already as moles).

  5. Predict and write a balanced chemical equation. • Start a RR track and convert the given information to moles (if not already as moles). • Use the molar mass (from the PT) to change grams → moles

  6. Predict and write a balanced chemical equation. • Start a RR track and convert the given information to moles (if not already as moles). • Use the molar mass (from the PT) to change grams → moles • Use 6.022 x 1023 to change atoms/molecules/formula units → moles

  7. Predict and write a balanced chemical equation. • Start a RR track and convert the given information to moles (if not already as moles). • Use the molar mass (from the PT) to change grams → moles • Use 6.022 x 1023 to change atoms/molecules/formula units → moles • Use 22.41 L (for gases only) to change L → moles

  8. Predict and write a balanced chemical equation. • Start a RR track and convert the given information to moles (if not already as moles). • Use the molar mass (from the PT) to change grams → moles • Use 6.022 x 1023 to change atoms/molecules/formula units → moles • Use 22.4 L (for gases only) to change L → moles • For water and dilute solutions, 1 mL = 1 g

  9. Convert the moles of the given to moles of the unknown using the mole ratio from the balanced chemical equation • Mole # of unknown • Mole # of known

  10. Convert the moles of the given to moles of the unknown using the mole ratio from the balanced chemical equation • Mole # of unknown • Mole # of known • 4. Convert the moles of the unknown to the desired unit (see possible conversion factors in step 2)

  11. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: What is step 1, always ?

  12. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g)

  13. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams?

  14. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? Always start by copying the given information!

  15. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? What MUST go here?

  16. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? Where do we always go to get grams information?

  17. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? Why “1 mole”?

  18. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? What MUST go here?

  19. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? What compound/ element are we looking for?

  20. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? What compound/ element are we looking for?

  21. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? Where can we find a mole ratio for these?

  22. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams?

  23. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? REDUCE?

  24. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? What MUST go here?

  25. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? What specific information about potassium phosphate is wanted?

  26. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? Where do we always go to get grams information?

  27. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? Why “1 mole”?

  28. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? How should this be calculated?

  29. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? 125 × 2 × 136 ÷ 39.1 ÷ 6 = 144.928

  30. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 125 g of potassium, how much potassium phosphate can be produced, in grams? Why 3 Sig Digs? 125 × 2 × 136 ÷ 39.1 ÷ 6 = 144.928

  31. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 35.4 g of potassium, how many formula units of phosphoric acid are needed?

  32. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 35.4 g of potassium, how many formula units of phosphoric acid are needed?

  33. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 35.4 g of potassium, how many formula units of phosphoric acid are needed?

  34. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 35.4 g of potassium, how many formula units of phosphoric acid are needed?

  35. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 35.4 g of potassium, how many formula units of phosphoric acid are needed?

  36. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 35.4 g of potassium, how many formula units of phosphoric acid are needed?

  37. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 35.4 g of potassium, how many formula units of phosphoric acid are needed?

  38. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 35.4 g of potassium, how many formula units of phosphoric acid are needed?

  39. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 35.4 g of potassium, how many formula units of phosphoric acid are needed?

  40. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 35.4 g of potassium, how many formula units of phosphoric acid are needed? 35.4 × 2 × 6.022E23 ÷ 39.1 ÷ 6 = 1.81738E23

  41. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we started with 35.4 g of potassium, how many formula units of phosphoric acid are needed? 1.82 × 1023 formula units H3PO4

  42. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we were able to collect 6.92 L of hydrogen gas, how many grams of phosphoric acid was used?

  43. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we were able to collect 6.92 L of hydrogen gas, how many grams of phosphoric acid was used?

  44. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we were able to collect 6.92 L of hydrogen gas, how many grams of phosphoric acid was used?

  45. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we were able to collect 6.92 L of hydrogen gas, how many grams of phosphoric acid was used?

  46. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we were able to collect 6.92 L of hydrogen gas, how many grams of phosphoric acid was used?

  47. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we were able to collect 6.92 L of hydrogen gas, how many grams of phosphoric acid was used?

  48. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we were able to collect 6.92 L of hydrogen gas, how many grams of phosphoric acid was used?

  49. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we were able to collect 6.92 L of hydrogen gas, how many grams of phosphoric acid was used?

  50. Example: Potassium is reacted with phosphoric acid Step 1: 2H3PO4(aq) + 6K(s) → 2K3PO4(aq) + 3H2(g) If we were able to collect 6.92 L of hydrogen gas, how many grams of phosphoric acid was used?