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Iran – A Current Overview

Iran – A Current Overview

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Iran – A Current Overview

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  1. Iran – A Current Overview • 3rd largest oil reserve & 2nd largest natural gas reserve • Imports more gasoline than any other country except U.S. • 1978-1979 Revolution • 2005 - MahmoudAhmadinejad succeeds Khomeini • 2007- 60% of population under 30 • Rise of fundamentalism – SHARI’A

  2. Reza Shah Pahlavi • After WWII began a program of Westernization (modeled after Turkey) • Land reform & ownership increased • Education improved • Women’s rights: voting, more education, professionalism & western dress • Carried on by son Mohammed Reza Pahlavi (abdicated 1941) • REFORMS FAILED • Spending too much on non-essential things (i.e. military instead of helping people)

  3. Iranian Revolution 1978-79

  4. Iranian Revolution • Shiite, Ayatollah Khomeini • Exiled in 1964 – began Rev from Paris • Grievances: corruption, police heavy-handedness, modernization, westernization, imperialism, exploitation of underprivileged, & illegitimate shah monarchy • 52 US personnel hostage crisis of ’79 (444 days) • Iran became Islamic Republic • led by handful of powerful ayotallahs & 180,000 mullahs (priests)  THEOCRACY • “divine rule by clerics”, Khomeini was the infallible supreme leader Prediction: How will this change in leadership affect society & culture in Iran??

  5. Cuban Revolution • CAUSE • Corrupt government • Fidel Castro overthrew Fulgencio Batista • EVENTS • Batista ruled as dictator (40s) • Guerrilla warfare begins (mid-50s) • Castro takes over (‘59) • New gov= communist • Che Guevara – Argentinean, Marxist revolutionary who allied with Castro, later became Pres. of Cuban National Bank & dealt w/US & USSR • Tried to help Bolivian Rev- captured & killed (‘67)

  6. Cuban Revolution: Consequences • Democratic Constitution (amendment allowed US intervention) • 1 of last 5 communist governments in world • Better living conditions: • Redistribution of wealth, stabilize population, nationalized industries, health & education opportunities, laws to stop enviro damage • Arts flourished: murals • Negatives • Repression of Spanish • American monopolies • Cuban Missile Crisis

  7. End of Day Quiz • Name 1 cause of the Cuban Revolution. • Name 1 cause of the Iranian Revolution. • Name one event during the Iranian Revolution. • Name one consequence of the Cuban Revolution.

  8. THE MIDDLE EAST • 1900-1914 • Ottomans & WWI • Surge in nationalism (esp. Young Turks) • Post- WWI • 1st Central Power to fall • Armenian Genocide • Betrayed by G.B. & France - land was controlled by the League of Nations • Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk)

  9. Interwar Period • American oil companies hedged out British influence & gained control over many oil facilities • Saudi Arabia • Kuwait* • Bahrain

  10. Post WWII • Pakistan independence from GB (1947) • Syrian independence (1944) • 1948- 1st Arab-Israeli War* • Turkish Crisis- Soviets demanding lands (although neutral during WWII) & US sent aid…why?

  11. Egypt Gamal Abdul Nasser Muslim Brotherhood • Came to power in 1952 – member of the Free Officers Movement • Allied w/Muslim Brotherhood • Loss of Arab-Israeli War (1948) • Broad social & economic reforms • Foreign policy: • Defeat Israel • Arab unity • Agitate socialist rev • 1956- forced G.B. out of Suez Canal • REFORMS FAILED • Founded 1928 by Hasan al-Banna • Murdered in 1949 • Contempt for wealthy Egyptian & Euro minority that flourished in face of mass poverty • founded to remedy probs • Fundamentalist • Called for massive reforms • Strikes, riots & assassinations

  12. The Six Day War (1967) • It was a total victory for Israel who then took: • The West Bank from Jordan • Golan Heights from Syria • Gaza Strip and Sinai from Egypt • 1978 Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian Pres. Anwar el-Sadatsigned the Camp David Accords (oversaw by Pres. Carter) • Israel returned Sinai and Egypt (a Muslim nation) recognized Israel’s right to exist • Won Nobel Peace Prize • Muslim extremist assassinated Sadat in 1981 – jailed political opponents (etc.)

  13. Egypt after Nasser • Anwar Sadat was his successor • Ended many programs, sought out private initiatives • Made peace with Israel • Expelled Russians • Opened Egypt to the west • Hosni Mubarak (successor) continued on similar path • MUSLIM FUNDAMENTALISM continues • One such group assassinated Sadat

  14. Israel • Balfour Declaration (1917)  creation of Israel • required that Jews and Palestinians divide land that was traditionally theirs • 1930’s -1940 ~500,000 Jews arrive • Palestinians had the numbers but the Jews had money & world sympathy • David Ben-Gurion (PM of Israel) - May 1948

  15. “The Arab-Israeli Conflict” • PLO(Palestinian Liberation Organization) was created & dedicated to reclaiming the land and establishing a Palestinian state • Intifada’s (uprisings) • Terrorism • New Hostilities began in 2000 • Israel elected Ariel Sharon as PM and he built a wall between Palestine and Israel for protection • PLO leader Yasser Arafat died in 2004 • New president signed a armistice with Israel ending the Intifada

  16. Intifada c.1988 – Young Palestinians demonstrating in the streets

  17. Israel & Palestine “The Arab-Israeli Conflict” • “Right of Return” • 9 million Palestinians living outside of homeland • Diaspora (ghurba) • Israel (2007) • 7.3 million Jews • 1.6 million Palestinians/non-Palestinians

  18. OPECORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES • Oil= power • OPEC set the world price for oil and controlled the amount available • 1970 they cut supply • Prices skyrocketed • Since the 1980s lost some of its power • Infrastructure &/or wealth in hands of minority

  19. Kuwait Iraq: “Vortex of Violence” • 8% of world’s oil reserves • Urbanized, welfare state • 1990 Gulf War • Iraqi invasion to “reclaim” land • Shiites, Sunnis & Kurds • 9% of world’s oil reserves • No deep water port

  20. Iraq: “Vortex of Violence” • Saddam Hussein • Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) • Gulf War (1990) • Civil war • Operation Iraqi Freedom • 1st “free” election (2005) • Civil War

  21. Terrorismal-Qa’ida destroyed the World Trade Center in New York on September 11, 2001

  22. “Arab Spring” • Wave of demonstrations and protests (both non-violent and violent), riots, and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 18 December 2010