Unit 8 Review Main Topics: 1. Cold War 2. Decolonization - independence of colonies after WWII 3. Creation of Israel and Israeli-Arab Conflicts 4. The Green Revolution 5. Globalization 6. Struggles with democracy in The Americas and Africa 7. Regional Trading Blocs • Ch 33 - 36
Cold War 1. What body of water was most likely the site for Cold War tension? 2. What is the main idea of the political cartoon? Answer: 1. The Black Sea 2. Stalin is trying to dominate eastern Europe.
Truman Doctrine • What was the purpose of the Truman Doctrine? Textbook page 968 Answer: To lend support to countries willing to fight communism.
Berlin Blockade city of Berlin Why was an airlift needed in order to overcome the Soviet blockade of West Berlin? Textbook page 968 - 969 Answer: Because Berlin was located well within East Germany.
Why did the U.S. and the Soviet Union become enemies during the Cold War?Textbook page 982-983 vs. Answer: The Soviet Union was distrustful of the democratic style government of the U.S. and the U.S. was opposed to Soviet Communism.
What was the “iron curtain”?Textbook page 967 Answer: It referred to the division of Europe. The countries that were behind the iron curtain included the Soviet Union and those in eastern Europe that became satellite nations of the Soviet Union.
What even increased U.S. spending in education and technology?Textbook page 971 Answer: The Soviet launching of a space satellite.
How did the two superpowers influence Third World nations?Textbook page 982-983 Answer: They each sponsored revolutions and counterrevolutions. They each engaged in covert operations (spying) on each other. They each provided military aid and built schools.
What was the main purpose of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968?Textbook page 1083 Answer: To prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to other nations.
What were the effects of Soviet rivalry with the U.S. from 1945 to the late 1980s?Textbook Section 35 - 3 Answer: Huge and costly military buildup that drained resources from other areas of the economy.
How did the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev bring an end of the Soviet Union and to the Cold War?Textbook Chapter 35, Section 3(35-3) Answer: Gorbachev’s Reforms: Glasnost: openness - ending of censorship and encouragement of open discussion or problems in the Soviet Union. Perestroika: economic and political reforms that opened up the Soviet economy to capitalism and democratic rule. Results: It led to economic turmoil and multinational, ethnic unrest.
Why were some Eastern European unhappy with the changes that came after the fall of communism?Textbook 35-5 Background Information: In 1989 Eastern European countries that were behind the “iron curtain” were able to overthrow their communist dictatorship governments and replace them with democratic, capitalist ones. Answer: New freedoms have brought new problems such as inflation, high unemployment and crime waves.
When did the Soviet Union officially collapse? 1991 The end of Soviet Communism
Why did Arab nations oppose the creation of Israel? Background Information: In 1917 the Balfour Declaration stated that European governments would help in the creation of a Jewish state. After WWII, the Jewish state of Israel was created in 1948 in the land known as Palestine. This was also the land of the ancient kingdom of Israel. Answer: They saw it as a plan to relocate European Jews on Arab territory.
Why did the Soviet Union invade Afghanistan in 1979?Textbook page 987 Background: Afghanistan was involved in a civil war. Afghan rebels were trying to overthrow a communist government. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to keep the communist government in power. The U.S. provided aid in the form of training and military weapons to the Afghan rebels. This is known as a proxy war because both superpowers did not directly wage war against each other but were involved by provided aid and military equipment. That is, they did not provided their own troops. Answer: The Soviets financially supported a civil war to bring communism to the country. The Soviets suffered financial instability as a result of the cost of their intervention in Afghanistan. The U.S. provided financial and military assistance to Afghan rebels, known as the mujahideen.
The Green RevolutionTextbook page 1074Although the chart below shows the positive consequences of the Green Revolution, what were the negative consequences of the Green Revolution? Answer: It introduced dangerous pesticides and chemical fertilizers.
GlobalizationWhat is global interdependence or globalization?Textbook page 1077-1078 Answer: The idea that nations are dependent on other nations and affected by the actions of others far away.
What negative economic impact is felt by industrialized nations because of global development?Textbook page Answer: Industries are moved to emerging nations where labor is cheaper which raises unemployment in developed nations.
Argument for globalization:Textbook Page 1077-1078 Answer: 1. Promotes investment 2. Raises the standard of living around the world by creating jobs in emerging countries. 3. Promotes peace through trade.
What are regional trading blocs?Textbook page 1076-1077 NAFTA EU Mercosur
Why do people immigrate to other nations?Textbook page 1086 Answer: The push and pull factor for immigration: Unstable political situations at home push them out. Prosperous economic opportunities pull them in.
Decolonization: The independence of African and Asian colonies after WWII First colony to gain independence: The Philippines page 1004 Read page 1005-06 and find out why the new President, Corazon Aquino, was expected to “clean up” the Philippines in1986? Zaire Answer: By ending dictatorship. How did direct rule prepare nations for independence in the Post World War II era? Answer: It allowed them for the opportunity to practice self-governing and democracy. How were the struggles of newly independent nations of Africa and Southeast Asia similar? Answer: Both began after WWII and suffered from ethnic divisions Why did Zaire face difficulties upon gaining independence? Answer: Zaire was unprepared for governing freely.
What effects did old colonial boundaries have on the newly independent African states?Textbook page 1012 Ethnic division has led to war among Nigerians. Answer: It divided people of similar backgrounds and ethnic groups and brought tensions and civil wars to new African states.
What were the goals of Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser?Textbook page 1018 - 1019 Answer: In 1956 he seized the Suez Canal from the British. This was known as the Suez Crisis.
What were the accomplishments of Jawaharlal Nehru, the 1st prime minister of India?Textbook pages 999 - 1000 Answer: 1. He was the 1st prime minister of India. 2. 3. He reorganized the states of India by language. 4. He pushed for industrialization of India. 5. He sponsored social reforms. 6. He led an alliance of countries that were able to remain neutral during the Cold War.
What was apartheid?Textbook page 1043 Answer: A South African policy separating the races. It ended in 1990 shortly after the release of Nelson Mandela from prison.
What is ethnic cleansing?Textbook page 1056 - 1057 Answer: In 1992 Serbian nationalist leader, Slobodan Milosevic, launched an attack on Bosnian Muslims in Kosovo trying to get rid of the entire population. A violent campaign aimed at trying to kill an entire ethnic group is known as ethnic cleansing.
What are the benefits of having a democratic government?Textbook page 1033 - 34 Answer: 1. Free elections 2. Constitutional governments 3. Citizen participation 4. economic opportunity What have been obstacles to Latin American nations in their attempts to establish democratic governments? Answer: 1. Powerful military rulers have not wanted to let go of their power. 2. Single-crop economies have led to struggling economies and political instability. 3. Sharp class divisions have also led to political instability.