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Controlling invasives ( killin ’ weeds)

Controlling invasives ( killin ’ weeds)

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Controlling invasives ( killin ’ weeds)

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  1. Controlling invasives(killin’ weeds) Audubon CA Working Lands Program Matthew Danielczyk Feb. 27, 2013 Tehama County RCD

  2. Strategies • Know what you’ve got • Make a map: Google Earth, Bing, napkin • Make a plan with measureable goals • Resources • Constraints • Methods • Schedule • Monitor

  3. Resources • Labor • $$$: funding agencies/partners? • Hand & power tools • Machinery • Herbicides & equipment • Grazing animals & infrastructure • Fire gear/training/infrastructure • Biological controls (Ag Commissioner)

  4. Constraints • Time • $$$ • access • Permit issues? • Organic production?

  5. Methods • Mechanical • Hand & power tools, machinery • Cultural • Grazing, fire, flooding • Biological • Chemical • Combinations of above • IPM

  6. Schedule • Understand life cycle • Prevent seed set! • Which stages most vulnerable? • Multiyear? • Yearly goals • Wildlife protection • Nesting season (Feb. 1 – Aug. 15) • Creek flow (Apr. 1 – Nov. 1) • Sensitive species

  7. Tactics • Upstream/hill -> downstream/hill • Start with outliers, work inwards towards center • Keeps seeds from spreading • Lends to multi-season/year approach • Sometimes slower is better: Bradley Method • Protect ‘best’ areas first • Work towards weedier areas as natives recolonize

  8. Adaptive management • AKA: I don’t know as much as I think I do • Monitor effects • Did it work? -> SWEET • Did it not? -> Modify plan, try again • Site-specific differences • Herbicide resistance

  9. Arundo/giant reed (Arundodonax) • Biology/life cycle • Tall (~30’), grows quickly • Dies back in winter • Flowers May-June (low energy reserves) • But no seeds! • Beware fragments • Deep rhizomes (roots) ~10’ • Resprout readily, store energy

  10. Arundo/giant reed (Arundodonax) • Mechanical treatment • Hand tools for new/small clumps • Power tools to reduce biomass • Brush cutter or chainsaw • Tractor-mounted mower • Excavator? • Erosion!

  11. Arundo/giant reed (Arundodonax) • Cultural treatment • Grazing: goats, sheep, cattle • Fire kills above ground biomass only • Chemical treatment: glyphosate, imazapyr • Aug thru Oct, aquatic formulations • Foliar: glyphosate 2%, imazapyr 1-2 qt./ac • Remove biomass, spray regrowth (2-3 yrs) • Bend & spray • Mix: 1 pt. imazapyr + 1 qt. glyphosate/ac • Cut stump: glyphosate 50%

  12. Saltcedar (Tamarixramosissima) • Biology/life cycle • Fairly long-lived (75-100 yrs) • Drops leaves in drought • Flowers Apr-Aug • Spreads mostly from seed • Short–lived seeds germinate rapidly • Beware fragments • Deep roots • Resprouts like crazy

  13. Saltcedar (Tamarixramosissima) • Mechanical treatment • Hand tools for saplings • Root plow • Hydro-ax or other forestry mulcher • Biological control • Saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabdaelongata)

  14. Saltcedar (Tamarixramosissima) • Cultural treatment • Grazing: goats, sheep, cattle • Fire kills above ground biomass only • Flooding • 1 month will kill seedlings • 1-2 yrs will kill mature plants • Flooding during willow & cottonwood seeding may crowd out saltcedar seedlings

  15. Saltcedar (Tamarixramosissima) • Chemical treatment: glyphosate, triclopyr, imazapyrAug thru Oct, but not in drought • small plants: foliar spray • 2-3% glyphosate • 0.5% triclopyr • 1% imazapyr • Mixes: 0.5% glyphosate, 0.5% imazapyr • Larger plants • Cut stump: 50% Garlon 3A, 25-100% Garlon 4, 10% imazapyr • Basal bark: 20-30% Garlon 4 • Foliar (see above)

  16. Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) • Biology/life cycle • Tall (~70’), grows quickly • Deciduous • Flowers May-June • Reproduction at several years • Huge # short-lived seeds fall in Sep. – Oct. • Wind, water • Male & female plants • Root suckers • Up to 50’

  17. Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) • Treatments: • Mechanical • Hand pulling for seedlings • Weed wrench for small saplings • Do not leave root fragments! • Cut stems or frill cuts + herbicide • Cultural • Cattle graze young shoots • Poor shade tolerance

  18. Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) • Chemical treatment: glyphosate, triclopyr, imazapyr, aminopyralid Aug. 15 through Oct, with leaves present • Foliar • Glyphosate 2-4% • Triclopyr 1-2% (1-1.5% Capstone) • Glyphosate 2% + triclopyr 0.5% • cut stump, frill cut or basal bark • 20% imazapyr, 20-30% triclopyr, 50% glyphosate

  19. Black locust (Robiniapseudoacacia) • Biology/life cycle • Tall(~80’), live 40-100 yrs • Deciduous • Flowers May-June • Seed production begins ~ 6 yrs, drop fall-winter • Long-lived • Root suckering • Begins 4-5 yrs

  20. Black locust (Robiniapseudoacacia) • Treatments: • Mechanical • Hand pulling for seedlings • Cut stems or frill cuts + herbicide • Cultural • Cattle graze young shoots • Poor shade tolerance

  21. Black locust (Robiniapseudoacacia) • Chemical treatment: glyphosate, clopyralid, aminopyralid, triclopyr, imazapyr Aug. 15 through Oct, with leaves present • Cut stump, frill cut or basal bark • 50% glyphosate, 20-50% triclopyr, aminopyralid 5-10% • Foliar • Glyphosate 1-1.5%, triclopyr5% • Clopyralid 1-1.3 pt/ac, aminopyralid 0.05-0.8% • Imazapyr 0.5-1% + glyphosate 2-3%

  22. Scotch broom (Cytisusscoparius) • Biology/life cycle • 6-10’, lives ~15 yrs • Flowers Mar-May • 2nd year • Many long-lived seeds • Germination Dec. – Jul. • Ballistic dispersal • Resprouts • Mechanical treatments • Hula hoe seedlings • Weed wrench small plants when soil is wet • Cut low during drought

  23. Scotch broom (Cytisusscoparius) • Cultural treatment • Goat grazing • Propane torch seedlings • Repeated burns • Biological control • Scotch broom seed beetle (Bruchidiusvillosus) • Scotch broom seed weevil (Apionfuscirostre) • Scotch broom twig miner moth (Leucopteraspartifoliella)

  24. Scotch broom (Cytisusscoparius) • Chemical treatment: glyphosate, imazapyr, triclopyr Aug. – Oct. • Foliar • Glyphosate 1.5-2% • Imazapyr 1-2% • Triclopyr 0.75 – 1.5% • Cut stump • Basal bark • triclopyr, imazapyr 20%

  25. Pampas grass (Cortaderiaselloana) • Biology/life cycle • Large clumps, live ~ 10 yrs • Flowers Sep. – Mar. • Huge # short-lived seeds • Wind-blown • Large root mass • Fragments resprout readily

  26. Pampas grass (Cortaderiaselloana) • Treatments: • Mechanical • Remove flowering plumes & dispose • Hand grub new/small clumps • Power tools to reduce biomass & expose base • Brush cutter, chainsaw, machete • Dig out base with hand tools (Pulaski) • Excavator/backhoe • Flip clump • Cultural • Cattle? • Heavy mulch

  27. Pampas grass (Cortaderiaselloana) • Chemical treatment: glyphosate, imazapyr, fluazipop Aug - Oct • foliar • Glyphosate 2% • Imazapyr 2-4% • Fluazipop 2-4% • Wipe • 33% glyphosate