Today’s Objectives-By the end of today you will be able to…. Discuss the escalation of the war and the concept of Trench warfare. Explain the roles nations and people played in the war. Explain how the world became involved in what started as a European Conflict..
Essential Question How and where was World War I fought?
Europe Plunges into War Main Idea: Why it Matters Now Much of the technology of modern warfare, such as fighter planes and tanks, was introduced in World War I. • Science and Technology- One European nation after another was drawn into a large and industrialized war that resulted in many casualties.
The Situation in Europe • 1914- 2 rival camps: • The Triple Alliance- Austria-Hungary, Germany and Italy. • The Triple Entente- Great Britain, France and Russia.
Archduke Assassinated = Alliance System Chain Reaction 1. Austria declares war on Serbia 2. Russia mobilizes troops 4. Germany declares war on France 3. Germany declares war on Russia 6. Britain declares war on Germany 5. Germany invades Belgium
The “Great War” Begins: 2 Opposing Sides • Triple Alliance Central Powers – Germany & Austria-Hungary (AH) • later joined by Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire • Triple Entente Allies – Great Britain (GB), France, & Russia • later joined by Japan,Italy, and United States
A Bloody Stalemate This meant that no side was winning! • This region became known as The Western Front • Many thought the war would be short. • The war turned into a long, bloody stalemate along the battlefields of France.
Germany Strategy • A war on both fronts. • Schlieffen Plan Avoid two-front war • Defeat France quickly, then go back to Russia • Russia's weakness’: • lack of industrialization & railroads • difficult to mobilize
The War Begins • Early September- The Germans reach Paris. • September 5, 1914- Allies regroup and Attack Germans. • Fighting lasted 4 days Germans retreated. • Battle of the Marne • Germans lose 60 miles; ruins Schlieffen Plan, causing war on two fronts!! War on the Western Front = Stalemate
War in the Trenches • Armies had dug miles of parallel trenches to protect themselves from enemy fire Trench Warfare- soldiers fought each other from the trenches. • “The men slept in mud, washed in mud, ate mud and dreamed in mud.” • Rats: sleep was impossible. • “No Mans Land”-space b/w the trenches.
Life in the Trenches “Shells of all calibers kept raining in our sector. The trenches disappeared; filled with earth…the air was unbreathable. Our blinded, wounded, crawling, and shouting soldiers kept falling on top of us and died splashing us with blood. It was living hell.”- French Soldier
“Terrain of Death” • “Imagine a broad belt, ten miles or so in width, stretching from the channel to the German frontier near Basle, which is positively littered with the bodies of men and sacrificed with their rude graves; in which farms, villages and cottages are shapeless heaps of blackened masonry; in which fields, roads and trees are pitted and torn and twisted by shells and disfigured by dead horses, cattle, sheep and goats, scattered in every attitude of repulsive distortion and dismemberment” – Valentine Flemming (British officer)
New Technologies of War • Leads to more deaths and stalemate • Machine guns • Larger artillery • Poison gas • Armored tanks • Airplanes • U-boats
Machine Guns British machine guns fired 8 rounds per second, at a distance of 2,900 yards
Artillery Greater power and carried much further 24 million shells were used in the battle of Verdun
Poison Gas 75 different types of poison-gas bombs were used
Airplanes http://www.briggsenterprises.com/bluemax/ Fokker
Battle on the Eastern Front • Eastern Front = German & Russian border • 1914 – Germans drive Russians into retreat; Russians driven out of Austria-Hungary • Russia loses 2 million men in 1915 • Russia is not industrialized, therefore they can’t get supplies from Allies. • Russia DID have a large population.
The Battles Continue… No Mans Land • Battle of the Somme - July 1916 • 20,000 British killed first day
As the War Continues… • Fighting spread beyond Europe to Africa as well as to the Southwest and Southeast Asia • The massive European conflict soon became a world war
WWI • More than a European conflict • Australia, India and Japan joined the allies. • Bulgaria and the Ottoman Turks joined the central powers.
Winning the War Chapter 11, Section 3
Essential Question How did the Allies win World War I?
A Global Conflict Main Idea Why it Matters Now This war propelled the United States to a new position of international power which it holds today. • WWI spread to several continents and required the full resources of many governments.
The Gallipoli Campaign Purposes of campaign: END STALE MATE! • Seize & secure Dardanelles a narrow sea strait. • Take Ottoman capital, Constantinople • Establish supply line to Russia
Gallipoli Results • Lasted from Feb. to Dec. (1915) • Allies suffered 250,000 casualties • Allies eventually give up
Battles in Africa and Asia • German’s colonies came under assault. • British and French were recruiting- • Many fought and died on the battlefield. • Colonial subjects had mixed feelings.
U-Boats • Jan. 1917- Germans announced that their submarines would sink w/o warning any ship in the waters around Britain Unrestricted Submarine Warfare • German subs =U-boats • This angered the US, 3 American ships were struck.
America Joins the Fight Cont… • Zimmerman Note- • Telegram written by Germany to Mexico • Would help Mexico “re-conquer” land if it allied itself with Germany. THIS WAS THE LAST STRAW! APRIL 2, 1917- US DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY. US ALLIES
War Affects the Home Front • “Great War” All were affected • WWI became a Total War-when countries devote all their resources to the war effort. • Entire gov’t was devoted to winning the war. • Took control of the economy • Rationing- people could only buy small amounts of the items that were also needed for the war effort. • Anti-war efforts were oppressed. • Propaganda-one-sided information designed to persuade and keep up morale and support for the war
Women and the War Replaced men in factories and shops. Experienced the horrors of the war as nurses. This showed people that they were able to work and provide.
Horrors of a Nurse • “He moaned through the bandages that his head was splitting with pain. I gave him morphine. Suddenly aware of the fact that he had [numerous] wounds, he asked: ‘Sa-ay! What’s the matter with my legs?’ Reaching down to feel his legs before I could stop him, he uttered a heartbreaking scream. I held his hands firmly until the drug I had given him took effect.” –Shirley Millard (nurse)
The Allies Win the War • Russia withdraws- • Civil unrest led Czar Nicholas to step down. • New gov’t was set up vowed to keep fighting Russian army refused Russian Revolution • Communist leader Vladimir Ilyich Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which ended the war between Russia and Germany. • Central powers collapse- • Second Battle of the Marne- Allies and Germans clash.
Central Powers Crumble • Bulgarians and Ottoman Turks surrender. • Austria-Hungary revolution. • Germany’s soldiers mutinied (rebel). • Germany and France signed an armistice- an agreement to stop fighting November 11, 1918 WWI ended
Legacy of WWI New war, new technologies Grand and global war Left behind death and destruction Economic impacts Treaties prompted anger and resentment.
Fighting in the East Armenian Genocide Turkish government attempts to wipe out Armenians in Turkish empire.
Armenian Genocide 2.5 million Armenians in Turkish Empire Armenians are Christian Thought to be traitors by Muslim empire Obstacle to an all Turkish empire (extreme nationalism)
Armenian Genocide April 24th, 1915 – 100’s of Armenians arrested – executed, imprisoned, or deported 1000’s of women and children deported to Syrian desert – died of starvation and thirst Men executed.
Armenian Genocide From 1915 to around 1919 – 1,500,000 of the 2,500,000 Armenians killed