Chapter 16 Notes Part 3 • Colonial Expansion • Colonies • Most colonies were loosely controlled by the mother country – and most colonial administrators were content with getting their tribute. • More formal administration spread as missionaries arrived. • Spain • Spain was the first European country to begin to colonize in the Americas – it was easy due to population losses, technological advantages in guns and iron weapons, and the advantage of horses.
Chapter 16 continued • They began with islands such as Hispaniola, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica, and then moving to the mainland. • Vasco de Balboa founded the colony of Panama in 1509. • The Aztecs were then soon conquered by Cortez, as were the Incas in 1531 by Pizarro. • Pizarro was assassinated by Inca rebels for his murder of the Incan Emperor.
Chapter 16 continued • Europe • Many settlers were religious refugees – fleeing Europe because of religious persecution. • Since new settlements were often small, settlers gained much experience with representative government. • In addition, the colonists read the new Enlightenment ideas widely. • Louis XIV began to settle areas of Canada – urging peasants to migrate to Quebec.
Chapter 16 continued • England and France fought each other in the Seven Years War (French and Indian War in the U.S.). • The war was fought on both sides of the Atlantic. • It ended with the Treaty of Paris that gave Britain the French land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. • English use of this land, and English taxation of the colonists to pay for the war eventually led to the American Revolution.
Chapter 16 continued • For the most part, European life was transplanted to the colonies. • Africa • Cape Colony on the tip of Africa was established by the Dutch in 1652. • Boers (Dutch farmers) frequently moved there and took over native land. • Conflicts between Africans and Boers continued in South Africa until the late 20th century.
Chapter 16 continued • Asia • The French and the British vied for control of India, while the Mughal Empire slowly collapsed. • The British were more concerned about money than missionary work – therefore the Hindus would rather work with the British.
Chapter 16 continued • After the French caused at least 120 British deaths because of imprisonment, the British, aided by many Indian troops, defeated the French in India. • For the most part, colonies were loosely governed, and their weren’t many European settlers in Asia (they mostly went to South Africa and the Americas).