Cognitive Development across the Lifespan of Human Development By: Shadra Tomei Sparling CEPD 8102 Dr. Hayes
Jean Piaget • Born in 1896, died in 1980. • He was an epistemologist who studied children’s intellectual development. • Developed a theory of cognitive development. “He posited that children progress through 4 stages and that they all do so in the same order” (Learning Theories Knowledgebase, 2010). It consists of four stages of intellectual development: Sensorimotor stage, Preoperational stage, Concrete Operational stage, and the Formal Operational stage.
Intelligence changes throughout our lifespan…here are the stages and the theories: Infancy: Sensory and Perceptual Development, Sensorimotor stage. Early Childhood: Preoperational stage. Middle/Late Childhood: Concrete Operational stage. Adolescence: Formal Operational stage. Early Adulthood: Postformal Thought. Middle Adulthood: Crystallized and Fluid intelligence. Late Adulthood: Sensory/Motor and Speed-of-Processing dimensions of cognition.
Maturation “The term maturation refers to a uniform progression of changes in brain organization and function in infants growing in any reasonably natural environment” (Kagan, 2008).
Processes of Development • Schemes: actions or representations that organize knowledge. • Assimilation: use of existing schemes to deal with new information. • Accommodation: adjustment of schemes to take in new information. • Organization: groupings of behaviors and thoughts into a higher-order system. • Equilibration: moving from one stage of cognitive development to the next.
Cognitive Development in Infancy (Birth to age two) • Sensorimotor Stage. • Object Permanence: Is an object there? • Sensory Input: Touching a toy. • Motoric Action: protruding the tongue.
Cognitive Development in Early Childhood (Ages 2-7) • Preoperational Stage. • Egocentrism: Is that you or me? • Intuitive Thought Substage: Let’s play 20 questions. • Centration: Piaget’s Conservation Task.
Cognitive Development in Middle/Late Childhood (Ages 7-11) Concrete Operational Stage. Classification: putting things into groups. Seriation: ordering stimuli by dimension. Transitivity: Logically combine relations to understand conclusions.
Cognitive Development in Adolescence (Ages10-22) • Formal Operational Stage. • Abstract Thinking: Thinking about thought itself. • Logical Thinking: Does this make sense? • Idealistic Thinking: The world is perfect. • Hypothetical-deductive reasoning: creating a hypotheis, and deducing implications (testing it).
Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood (Ages 18-25) • Postformal thought. • Pragmatic thinking: Applying knowledge in their work. • Reflective/Relativistic thinking: Being able to view other perspectives and opinions(mutual respect). • Creativity: What can I invent?
Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood (Ages 40-65) • Fluid Intelligence: Abstract reasoning declines. • Crystalized Intelligence: a person’s accumulated information and verbal skills increases.
Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood (Ages 60-death) • Sensory/Motor: Declines with age. • Speed-of-Processing: Declines due to a decline in brain functioning. • Attention: Selected, Divided, or Sustained. • Memory: Health, education, and socioeconomic status affect this. • Wisdom: Expert knowledge about practical aspects of life.
References • Kagan, J. (2008). In Defense of Qualitative Changes in Development. Child Development, 79(6), 1606-1624. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01211.x. • Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2010, October). Stage Theory of Cognitive Development (Piaget) at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved October 20th, 2010 from http://www.learning-theories.com/piagets-stage-theory-of-cognitive-development.html • Newkirk, Ella. (2008). Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/newkirker/Piagets-Cognitive-Development-Theory • Psaltis, C., Duveen, G., & Perret-Clermont, A. (2009). The Social and the Psychological: Structure and Context in Intellectual Development. Human Development (0018716X), 52(5), 291-312. doi:10.1159/000233261. • Santrock, John W. (2008). Essentials of Life-Span Development. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.