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Lifespan Human Development PSY 223

Lifespan Human Development PSY 223

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Lifespan Human Development PSY 223

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  1. Dr. Nicole Alea Lifespan Human Development PSY 223 MTWR 10:15-12:20 SB 106

  2. Syllabus & Course Materials available online at: http://people.uncw.edu/alean/PSY223.htm

  3. Lifespan human development A field of study that aims to understandconstancy & change in physical, cognitive, social, & emotional factors throughout the lifespan.

  4. What do you think? • Development is continuous, gradual progression, with new abilities, skills, & knowledge gradually added at a relatively uniform pace. OR • Development occurs at different rates, alternating between periods of little change and periods of abrupt, rapid change.

  5. Basic issues • Continuous or discontinuous development? Qualitative – new skills emerge at particular periods Quantitative - adding on more or more complex skills

  6. What do you think? • Humans everywhere follow the same general sequence of development. OR • Each human passes through a unique course of development.

  7. Basic issues • One course of development or many? • Universal – basic process for everyone; differences are simply variations in basic process • Context-specific-unique process for everyone; differences result from different environments

  8. What do you think? • Human intelligence is determined almost exclusively by genetic factors. OR • Human intelligence is largely the result of experiential factors.

  9. Are kids born bad? Basic issues • Nature or Nurture? • Nature – human development is biologically (genetically) determined • Nurture - the physical and social environment influence human development • Contemporary developmental psychologists say “both”

  10. When do humans stop developing? • Traditional population pyramid: more children & young • Projected population pyramid: equal young & old

  11. Lifespan Perspective Paul Baltes (1987) Max Planck Institute for Human Development http://www.mpib-berlin.mpg.de/ **Table 1.5: Major Theories of Human Development**

  12. Prenatal Conception to birth Infancy & toddlerhood birth – 2 years Early childhood 2-6 years Middle childhood 6-11 years Adolescence 11-20 years Early adulthood 20-40 years Middle adulthood 40-60 years Late adulthood 60 years-death Development as lifelong(**Table 1.1**)

  13. What abilities increase with age? What abilities decline with age?

  14. Multidirectional & multidimensional • Multidirectionality: decline & growth at allpoints in lifespan • development doesn’t occur in one direction • ratio shifts with age

  15. Gains > Losses Losses > Gains ratio between gains & losses shifts across lifespan

  16. Multidirectional & multidimensional • Multidirectionality: decline & growth at allpoints in lifespan • development doesn’t occur in one direction • ratio shifts with age • Multidimensionality: pattern of decline & growth varies across & within domains

  17. gains & losses depend on domain Emotional understanding Vocabulary Memory Ability to learn foreign language

  18. Plasticity • Humans have a range of functioning • Natural occurring plasticity through compensation • Plasticity through training • Less plasticity with increasing age

  19. Embedded in multiple contexts • Age-graded influences: related to chronological age • History-graded influences: related to generational (cohort) events • Nonnormative influences: related to unique experiences

  20. Research Methods

  21. January 18, 2006 Can a violent video game called Grand Theft Auto be responsible for an 18-year-old, Devin Moore, murdering three people? A scene from the violent video game Grand Theft Auto. Developmental psychology in the news…

  22. “Playing violent video games, like Grand Theft Auto, leads to increased aggression in adolescents.”

  23. Sign: direction of relation Correlation coefficient r = +.20 +.20 Number: strength of relation General Research Designs • Correlational design: see how two (or more) pre-existing variables are related + variables move in same direction - variables move in opposite direction +.46 -.09 Ranges 0 to 1: Closer to 1 stronger the relation

  24. Aggressive Behavior Video Games r = +.20 Personality Peer pressure What conclusions can we make? • Cannot make cause & effect conclusion directionality problem: do not know the direction of relation third variable problem: other variable might account for relation

  25. “Playing violent video games, like Grand Theft Auto, leads to (i.e., causes) increased aggression in adolescents.”

  26. Dependent (DV) Outcome variable General Research Designs • Experimental design: manipulate variable to test the effects on outcome variable Variables (Aggressive behavior)

  27. Independent (IV) Manipulated variable Dependent (DV) Outcome variable General Research Designs • Experimental design: manipulate variable to test the effects on outcome variable Variables Group 1: nonviolent game Group 2: violent game (Aggressive behavior)

  28. How do I know if experiment worked?

  29. Can make cause & effect conclusion Independent (IV) Dependent (DV) What conclusions can we make? • Because have random assignment to IV • rules out confounds – other explanations • without it, do not have a “true” experiment

  30. “Playing violent video games, like Grand Theft Auto, leads to increased aggression in adolescents.”

  31. Age chronological age Cohort birth year time of measurement Time Developmental Research Designs Building blocks of ALL developmental research Changes in a person experiences unique to a generation circumstances during data collection

  32. r = +.30 r = +.20 r = +.10 Developmental Research Designs • Cross-sectional: age & cohort vary, time constant Can only conclude age differences

  33. r = +.30 r = +.20 r = +.10 Developmental Research Designs • Longitudinal: age & time vary, cohort constant Can conclude age change

  34. Design Advantages Disadvantages Cross-sectional Longitudinal Advantages & Disadvantages Practical & quick Age differences Cohort effect Time effects Practice effects Nonrandom drop-out Lack of generalizability Measures age change With all the problems, what should researchers do?

  35. Age change that generalizes to other cohorts Age & cohort effects can be teased apart Developmental Research Designs • Sequential: combine cross-sectional & longitudinal designs

  36. Considered the “best” developmental research design…but hardly ever done?

  37. In-class Assignment 1 The purpose of this assignment is to give you an opportunity to apply and practice what you have learned about general and developmental research designs.