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GERMANY. Budesrepublik Deutschland (Federal Republic of Germany). German “Reichs”. 1st Reich: Charlemagine, Holy Roman Empire, 800 A.D. 2nd Reich: Bismark, 1871 3rd Reich: Hitler, 1933. Germany and WWI. Blame Treaty of Versailles. Hitler.

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  1. GERMANY Budesrepublik Deutschland (Federal Republic of Germany)

  2. German “Reichs” • 1st Reich: Charlemagine, Holy Roman Empire, 800 A.D. • 2nd Reich: Bismark, 1871 • 3rd Reich: Hitler, 1933

  3. Germany and WWI • Blame • Treaty of Versailles

  4. Hitler • Assumed office in 1933 democratically but soon seized power and suspended constitution • 3rd Reich • Holocaust, WWII

  5. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) • Over 60 million dead in WWII

  6. Head of State • Federal president • Elected for maximum of two five year terms by the Federal Assembly, which consists of members of the Bundestag and representatives o the state legislatures • Current president is Horst Kohler

  7. Chief Executive • Chancellor • Elected by the Bundestag • Angela Merkel, CDU

  8. Political Parties • Government is composed of a grand coalition of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU not present in Bavaria) and the Social democratic Party of Germany (SPD) • Opposition parties represented in parliament are the Free Democratic Party (FDP); the Left Party and the Greens

  9. Elections • Turnout in German elections typically high: 80% +

  10. Germany “Basic Law of 1949” • Imposed by the Allies, considered temporary, but is basis of current constitution • Allows for pooling of sovereignty but has required amending to do so • Based on Roman civil code tradition

  11. German Territorial Division • At the end of WWII, Germany divided into four administrative zones (American, British, French and Soviet) • The first three became W. Germany, the Soviet became East Germany

  12. Reunification • Willy Brandt’s Ostpolitik (1972) • Berlin Wall collapses in 1989 • Five states (Lander) of East Germany reunited with West Germany on October 3rd, 1990

  13. Reagan’s Speech • “Tear Down This Wall” Speech • June 12, 1987 • Delivered at the Brandenburg Gate, Berlin Wall, with speakers aimed at both the West and the East

  14. What Explains Germany’s post-WWII Success? • Konrad Adenauer • Marshall Plan (encouraged integration) • European Union

  15. Legislature: Bicameral • BUDESTAG: lower house • 662 members, 328 directly elected from individual constituencies; 334 elected through party lists in each state, so as to obtain proportional representation • Parties must win at least 5% of the national vote, or three constituency seats, to gain representation

  16. Legislature • BUNDESRAT: upper house • Consists of members nominated by the 16 state governments

  17. Germany and the EU • Germany has, since 1949, been an eager partner in its willingness to pool sovereignty on behalf of the EU • Konrad Adenauer 91949-1963) saw the ECSC and EU integration in general as a way of linking Germany with France and as a way for Germany to “escape into Europe.”

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