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Bursting the Bonds of Empire

Bursting the Bonds of Empire

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Bursting the Bonds of Empire

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  1. 5 Bursting the Bonds of Empire

  2. Bursting the Bonds of Empire • The Climactic Seven Years’ War • The Crisis with Britain • On the Brink of Rebellion • Severing the Colonial Bonds • Conclusion: Coming of Revolution

  3. The Climactic Seven Years’ War

  4. Background • England reorganizes imperial administration • Board of Trade • Royal governors given more power • Attempts to enforce policy • Economic regulations tie England more closely to its colonies • England hopes to control Atlantic trade • War with Spain from 1739

  5. Outbreak of the War • As British colonies grow, conflicts with French increase • Fort-building along the British-French border • English send thousands of troops • Initial French victory • Indians ally with French • 1756 – British declare war on France • French and Indian war becomes a world war

  6. Fighting • Indians use European powers against each other • French defeated by 1760 • Capture of Montréal • Fighting continues elsewhere • England had defeated the power of France in North America

  7. Legacy • Treaty of Paris, 1763 • Spain gets New Orleans, Louisiana Territory • Indians now under British rule • Most alliances had been with the French • British issue Proclamation of 1763 • Colonies indebted, weakened

  8. North America After 1763

  9. The Crisis with Britain

  10. Legacy of the Seven Years’ War • George Grenville, George III’s chief minister • Debt • Cost of standing forces in North America • New taxes levied • Sugar Act, 1764 • Stamp Act, 1765

  11. Reactions to the Stamp Act • Virginia’s House of Burgesses responds • Debate led by Patrick Henry • Virginia Resolves

  12. Patrick Henry, Forceful Patriot Orator

  13. Reactions to the Stamp Act (cont’d) • Attacks on British agents • Stamp Act Congress, New York, September, 1765 • Sons of Liberty • Violent protest

  14. British Response • Declaratory Act 1766 • Townshend duties • Colonists attack agents that enforce the measure • British troops occupy Boston • Fire on crowd, 1770

  15. Phillis Wheatley

  16. On the Brink of Rebellion

  17. Protest among Farmers • Regulators • Farmers’ associations in North Carolina • Used force against courts, opponents • Attacked with British troops • Similar action in New York • Uprising against wealthy landlords

  18. Committees of Correspondence • 1772, British crown takes control in Massachusetts • Samuel Adam leads reaction in Boston • Committees of Correspondence • Further enflamed by Tea Act • Tea Act, 1773 • Intended to bail out East India Company • Leads to boycott, especially by colonial women

  19. American Liberty Abused

  20. The Continental Congress • Coercive Acts, 1774 • In response to Tea Party and other actions • Called Intolerable Acts in colonies • Boston harbor closed • Limited local government • Continental Congress called, 1774 • Representatives from twelve colonies • Local movements now tied together

  21. Urban Revolt • Revolt centered on urban areas • Philadelphia • Conflicts between merchants and artisans • Protest spreads, becomes radical

  22. Severing the Colonial Bonds

  23. Rupture • General Gage ordered to seize Boston rebels • Fighting at Lexington and Concord, April, 1775 • Second Continental Congress meets, May, 1775 • Olive Branch Petition sent to Britain • This attempt at reconciliation rebuffed

  24. Rupture (cont'd) • Common Sense • Successful in raising feeling against Britain

  25. Thomas Paine and the Title Page of Common Sense

  26. The Declaration of Independence • Resolution calling for independence, June 7, 1776 • Declaration issued, July 4

  27. Tearing Down the Statue of George III

  28. The Articles of Confederation • Continental Congress • Debate over powers of central government • Compromise reached • Articles of Confederation, 1777 • Congress given extensive powers • States given right to tax, but cede land claims • Central government has no coercive powers • Approved, 1780

  29. Western Land Claims Ceded by the States, 1782–1802

  30. Mobilizing • Calls both for war and for loyalty to Britain • Many protests, often extralegal • Revolutionary republicanism • Public virtue – ceding private interests to the public good • Factions – seen as destructive • Political equality – debate over extent

  31. Mobilizing (cont'd) • State governments reorganized • Constitutions written

  32. Debates over State Government • Pennsylvania • New constitution • Intense debate • Franchise extended to all white, taxpaying men • Massachusetts • John Adams helps write constitution • Two legislative houses

  33. Women and the Franchise • Few supported extension of the franchise to women • Women take part in printed debates • Vocal in pressing for rights, though not equality

  34. Mercy Otis Warren

  35. Conclusion:Coming of Revolution

  36. Conclusion:Coming of Revolution • Seven Years’ War • Britain controls most of North America • But Britain begins to reorganize colonies • Colonists begin to question their role • Colonists’ needs versus imperial goals • More colonists become politically active

  37. Timeline

  38. Timeline